Journal of Pathogens

온라인 진료예약 서비스 안내

University of Nebraska–Lincoln
Nanoparticles of MgF have been used for coating glass surfaces observing an inhibition of biofilm formation by both, E. Liposomes containing clarithromycin have been tested against biofilm-forming P. Olympics clean-up is a winner for Ryans. EU to start taxing road freight to contain pollution. This phenomenon could be facilitated by the close cell-to-cell contact inside biofilms and also by the stabilization of these contacts that may be favored by the biofilm matrix. New Sustainability Guide details how to measure carbon footprint. In staphylococci , the main factor which is responsible for adhesion is called the polysaccharide intercellular adhesion PIA.

Importance of Biofilms in Urinary Tract Infections: New Therapeutic Approaches

Bacterial Biofilm: Its Composition, Formation and Role in Human Infections

AllergenOnline Home of the farrp allergen protein database. Curvularia lunata enolase Cur l 2. Curvularia lunatua Cur l 3 Cochliobolus. Acacia Vachellia profilin Aca f 2. Actinidia Act d 2 thaumatin like protein. Aedes aegypti Aed a 4 alpha glucosidase. Alternaria Alt a 8 mannitol dehydrogenase. Anisakis Ani s 1 protease inhibitor. Anisakis Ani s 7 UA3-recognized allergen. Aspergillus versicolor serine protease.

Betula Bet v 8 glutathione S-transferase. Brassica Calcim binding protein Group I. Candida Cand a 1 Alcohol dehydrogenase. Candida Cand a 3 Peroxysomal protein. Carya illinoisnensis Car i 2 vicilin. Crangon Cra c 4 sarcoplasmic calcium-binding prote. Crangon Cra c 5 myosin light chain. Crangon Cra c 8 triosephosphate isomerase. Cryptomeria Isoflavone reductase-like protein. Cryptomeria thaumatin like Cry j 3. Curvularia lunata alcohol dehydrogenase. Cynodon Group 4 like-allergen FAD-linked oxidoredu.

Daucus Dau c 5 isoflavone reductase. Dermatophagoides Der f 24 and Der p 24 Ubiquinol. Dermatophagoides Der p 1 Der f 1 Der m 1.

Dermatophagoides Der p 23 Peritrophin-like protein. Veolia fined after agency worker sustained serious burns. Simple ladder carrying gadget wins two awards. Italian manufacturer Adiatek has given birth to a new Baby. Category winner - Machines, accessories and components: Category winner — Cleaning Management and Training Solutions.

International employers initiative launches. Early-bird tickets for forthcoming BCC Conference, now released. JPM Contract Cleaners up for business award. Industry first for Serv ice Master Clean. Healthcare Cleaner of the Year Awards - shortlist announced. New initiative to help schools lead the way on reducing water pollution. Harry Hill highlights need for dog fouling equipment.

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British Cleaning Council reacts to Hilton Hotel cleaner protest. Quality triple score for the Wrennalls Group. Wheelie Bin 'Wash and Lift' is a really winner! Rapid tests support FSA initiatives for safer food. Announcement from the Facilities Management Association. Clearsprings Support Serv ice s signs up for CleanLink's software solutions. The Cleaning Show promises a feature-packed programme.

Facilities and cleaning employers - free apprent ice ships opportunity! Regent centre stage in Q1 new business gains.

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Trojan Battery expands distribution in the Netherlands. Free public cleaning gives city landmarks in China a new look. Forum of Private Business asks councils how long they take to pay suppliers. Right Royal Jubilee clean up in central London. A good name that sells. Ingot wins top club contract. Bunzl acquires Serv ice Paper in the US. Initial Facilities toasts success of apprent ice ship scheme. Committed to corporate social responsibility.

Cleaning group's warranty gives products the EDGE. Sustainable Restaurant Association helps caterers clean up their credentials. LPM Cleaning set to reduce costs and boost productivity.

Regent Cleaning gets the silver. Ecolab participating in World Health Organisation initiative to improve patient safety. It's tough out there. Soap sales soar after dispenser link at Knight Air. Freudenberg North America targets zero manufacturing waste. Truvox makes big splash at Royal Commonwealth Pool. Rubbermaid unveils new products designed with the end-user in mind. OspreyFrank - the new name in pressure washing. Eurozone industry losing focus on the fundamentals.

JP Morgan chief asked: New rechargeable and washable wireless keyboard is ideal for healthcare use. Cretan hotel enjoys cost efficiency that doesn't sacrif ice on quality. Bunzl expands into Switzerland.

Newcastle-under-Lyme Council wins fourth award with support from Acumen. Creating a virtuous cycle in food hygiene. The FM Market Survey needs your help! The Cleaning Industry and workplace slips and trips: Lifecycle longevity an important factor in hand dryer rental costs. A quarter of sick days are due to musculoskeletal problems.

DMG team up with Matrix in Scotland. Owner cloning, dead fish and dead companies. Worldwide canvassing campaign under way. HMRC enforcers target London businesses.

Paper disposables manufacturer fined for safety failings. European support, RPS Corporation. Karcher sets new standard for compact hot water pressure washers. Principle Cleaning goes into orbit!

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LPM publishes first cleaning supplies catalogue. Survey explores how cleaning contractors bid on accounts. Get ahead of the Games. Proventix records the 10 millionth hand wash. Ramon wins Gold at London Hospital Contico's new mop handle doesn't need a bucket.

Training collaboration leads to jobs success. Why the EU isn't working: Serv ice Master Clean introduces new guidelines for restoring damaged property. Oxypharm ticks all the boxes at key Birmingham hospitals. Sanicom at your serv ice! N ice ly packaged support at Cafe Culture that was full of beans. Global Soap Project helps Haiti fight cholera epidemic. New study finds degree of interest in E-Learning classes impacts on sales outcomes.

Don't waste money on flying ants warns pest control company. Report trashes EU waste management results. Train cleaner in race to find missing Olympic tickets. Olympics clean-up is a winner for Ryans.

Research on key antibacterial ingredient distorts real-world use. New law seeks to limit dumping of e-waste. Bill Gates names winners of the 'Reinvent the Toilet' challenge. CSSA defends cleaning industry's record on the London living wage. Handy slimliner trolley suits tighter spaces. Fast, mess-free pressure washing with the FRV The Cleaning Show CSSA responds to survey on hospital cleaning. Nurses regularly forced to perform heavy cleaning duties, survey finds.

JLS dancers model Dickies clothing at tour concert in Brighton. Insurers flooded by water claims, whilst vandalism ruins rural regions. Ladder Association launches Ladder Exchange. Your guide to the business opportunities in China's cleaning market. Thuraplug - the revolutionary plughole cleaner.

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Vectair Systems unveils a new generation of handcare dispensers. The Hako Virtual Adviser: Survey examines use of mobile dev ice s in the cleaning industry. Rubbermaid launches Clean Look coordinated washroom products. Betco announces new Fastdraw Foamer II. Dust Control UK unveils new training programme to combat silica. Extended foamer range delivers cho ice and versatility. If you want to do business in Turkey, don't miss Pulire Eurasia. Just a week until The FM Event opens its doors.

Hygiene Group is the right ingredient for Cereform. Final tickets on sale now for BCC Conference Cresswell awarded cleaning contract at new local school. Ladder Association stresses need for safe equipment following prosecution.

CSSA frustrated by news that illegal migrants are not pursued for economic reasons. Auto Bella launches complete auto car wash capability. Selden acquires Jeyes Professional Division.

Funding announced to increase recycling rate in Scotland. KD masters Prochem's Sapphire. Clean India journey set to spread hygiene, sanitation awareness.

Gum success for Newham Council. New features on offer at The Cleaning Show Ryans ploughs through a clean 10 years. Training flexibility with the WoolSafe Academy. Emprise bulks up its gym cleaning portfolio. Assign - next-generation mobile and field workforce scheduling software launched. Korean airforce chooses RCM sweepers. Study finds PurThread hospital privacy curtains resist superbug contamination eight times better than control curtains. Tickets selling fast for 25th Anniversary Loo of the Year Awards presentation extravaganza!

Chicopee receives special customs certification. Irish manufacturer seeks distributors. Asfel is looking forward to export promotion. New independent studies show Purell Advanced Instant hand sanitiser to be ahead of the game. A self sustaining solution for electronically controlled taps. Australian cleaning contractors face similar issues to those in the UK.

New success signals unparalleled award hat-trick for SkySiren. Norse scores high in schools cleaning and grounds purchasing frameworks. Study shows efficacy of improved hydrogen peroxide against healthcare-associated pathogens. Greyland 'wins gold' from supplier to the London Olympics. New apprent ice ships in facilities management launched. Truvox Multiwash machines keep Glasgow Royal Infirmary floors clean. Effective hand hygiene in reducing the spread of infections. Innovation and Customer Serv ice Award winners: How to tackle Springtime pests.

Deliberately disabled safety mechanisms lead to fine for recycling firm. Personalised feedback makes healthcare workers tw ice as likely to clean their hands. Genie will reappear in different form. UK Government's flagship employment programme off to a promising start, but low employer awareness hinders progress. Nviro wins Employer of the Year award. Inaugural FM Event is praised by industry. Facilitate the future growth and development of your cleaning business.

Hat trick for Cagney Contract Cleaning. National head off ice puts Trust in Principle Cleaning. Clean up at The Golden Serv ice Awards ! Anti-microbial plastic - an answer to the lack of human hygiene. PDI signs agreement with HealthTrust for surface disinfection products. Omega power - an incredibly compact stainless steel steam cleaner! ISS continues solid performance in challenging market. Betco launches new Stealth cylindrical sweeping scrubbers. Time to get on the acquisition trail but take a different path.

Nurses should clean 'only when relevant' says poll. Business efficiency and innovation in the spotlight at BCC annual conference. Northern European regions the most innovative, reveals new study. Forum announces five-point plan for jobs and growth. Why we should all ignore GDP statistics.

Agreement confirms elite supplier status. Ingot Serv ice s continues its support for Suffolk youth charity. Buc-ee's New Braunfels bathroom is America's best. Cleaning and environmental apprent ice ships firm receives industry accolade for second year running. Ambitious plans announced for Facilities Show Conference to hear from expert behind British athletes' success.

Does new report signal future problems for window cleaning industry? WFBSC's new worldwide cleaning report discusses and compares sector's key issues. CHSA announces changes to secretariat from 1st January Would you like salt with that? The use - and misuse - of floor buffers and floor scrubbers. Tests of Canadian hotels indicate high levels of contamination. Jangro launches smart cleaning training programme.

Vectair partners gynaecological cancer research charity to launch its Femcare MVP range. Tips on maintaining gym mats. New partnership to find work for unemployed people in Wales. Swedish hospitals failing toilet hygiene guidelines. Avoid the perils of window cleaning in frozen wintery conditions. Carlisle awarded Arriva contract.

Hull firms in court for worker's death in roof fall. Vileda Professional launches flexible and disposable high level cleaning solution. Housing and care provider appoints eight contractors. Christmas energy saving tips for businesses. World's largest floor cleaning franchise plans global expansion. Aurora Capital acquires DuBois Chemicals.

Talks being held today to avert further protests and strike action at hospitals. Cleaning at the sharp end! How to safely remove ice melt haze from hard floors.

Clever FM solution can help increase efficiency and lower costs. A new weapon in your cleaning skills armoury? UK business needs smarter spending strategies for growth.

Triangle Serv ice s commences operations In Colombia. FM professional and membership bodies "failing employers" - FM chief spearheads campaign for action. China air pollution hits record levels but relief may be close at hand - for some. Brighton hospitals pay dispute: Urgent reviews of anti-Legionella water treatment essential after HSE ban on elemental copper. AlturaSolutions releases report on marketing directions that will impact the Jansan industry.

Tips for cleaning professionals to keep flu and Norovirus germs at bay. Time is running out to make the most of exhibiting at Ausclean WA. Greyland says don't get caught short! Cleaning linked to asthma risk, shows new study. Cleaning industry welcomes wider support for the living wage.

Unilever brings zero waste to landfill commitment five years forward to Andrew Large announces departure from cleaning industry. Hoover Commercial manufacturer in North America to invest in innovation.

Ashkin sees as 'tipping point' for sustainability and the cleaning industry. Trust fined after employees exposed to TB bacteria. Innovation in the hand towel industry: New contactless soap dispensers from Kennedy: Cleaning contractors wade in to clear flooded NHS site. Major expansion plans at Avica. Singaporean washroom association launches awareness-raising online game and competition.

LPM wins major contract with Communisis. Truvox scrubs up at the Trojans Club. Gojo signs agreement with US HealthTrust. National winner John puts the Who? Don't let the Winter Vomiting Virus take hold. Restroom Association Singapore presents its Loo Awards. New report gives top considerations for hiring commercial window cleaners. No damage, just PURfect results! Norse wins Archant facilities management contract. CMS Advisory Committee gains a new member.

Kärcher wins unfair competition lawsuit against Chinese manufacturer. Tax time for BSCs: Bitesize learning with the WoolSafe Academy. RIA members create cleaning solution for flood damage.

The sustainable off ice in action - new 'Serv ice Center of Excellence'. Textile manufacturer sentenced over worker's death. Helping business to be 'smart' about waste and resources. Prochem Europe customer is UK's fastest-growing franchise. AsepticSure disinfection system proving successful in Canadian hospital trials. Higiexpo set for success. Will you be attending AusClean WA? ISSA ready to hit the fairways. Nviro cleans crime scenes as part of three year contract with Hampshire Pol ice.

Morclean launches machine range for cleaning wheelie bins. Georgia-Pacific and Versus Technology collaborate over healthcare hygiene. Katrin Academy - stepping stones to success. Spiderman window cleaner surprises patients at children's hospital in Tampa.

Motorclean becomes largest provider of car valeting serv ice s in the UK. Marriott helps 'Clean the World'. Cleaning Show organisers release details of seminar programme. Academic believes awards system will lead to cleaner schools in Ghana. China Clean teams up with World Toilet Organization to create onsite forum. New joint venture company will safeguard jobs and deliver key serv ice s. Xenex 'robot' halting spread of infection in more than hospitals. New contract win builds on JTM's social housing portfolio.

Energy efficiency on agenda at Facilities Show Idrobase buys new premises to cope with increasing business. Greyland customer survey - results are in! Tissue World, Barcelona, less than two weeks away. Vileda Professional's clean sweep at Manchester Arndale. Olympic legacy lingers on for Bay West. New Soybean Resin urinals cement Waterless Co's environmental credentials! Keep stains at bay with the brand new app from WoolSafe. Hygiene concerns change our thinking on construction materials.

Rise in low-skilled migrant labour from EU is not simply due to work ethic or skills, says new report. Jangro triumphs in Innovation Awards. And the category winners were Pasante Healthcare launches Dizolve detergent sheets. Tersano International Srl introduce ozone cleaning. A rare work ethic! And it wasn't just the Brits that came JAWS open and at the ready Window cleaning serv ice s right on target!

In a hurry to get home Paul? It was like a late night visit to the supermarket Cleaning supplies director scoops Surrey award. Cleanliness can improve academic achievement and enhance student retention rates. New Biocidal Products regs: Initial Facilities plans scheme to create 80 apprent ice ships. Avica further improves customer serv ice levels. How to tell if a hotel is going green. April in Portugal proves productive for Gary.

Contract cleaning market switches to specialised in Report offered to Cleanzine readers at discounted pr ice. Prochem widens specialist solutions offer.

UK manufacturer's compact steam cleaner packs powerful punch. Jury announces nominations Golden Broom Award New report shows cleanliness rated as top concern in fitness sector. Hygiene on the move. New study examines possible contamination from hand drying methods. Ryans raises the standard. ISS and Coca-Cola - it's the real thing! Prochem expands training programme with in-depth stain removal course for Making food safety commitments you can stick to.

EMS raises the bar on ambulance cleanliness and infection control. Incentive FM adds Northampton's venue to shopping centre contract portfolio. Ecolab to acquire Purate business from AkzoNobel. Get Waste Smart at the Facilities Show Guests expect a 'Spring Clean' standard all year round from hospitality operators. Vax Commercial appointed by Travelodge.

Georgia-Pacific to acquire Buckeye Technologies. Cooperation announced between Group Eulen and the Dussmann Group. Australian acquisitions will open up market for Bunzl. Karcher and Sanoserv win the Golden Broom Award Chemspec Europe solving the insolvable.

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ISS named world's best outsourcing company. Liquid Vo ice in the heads of lone workers. Facilities managers and property owners urged to be alert on sewer flooding. Facilities management industry bodies plan to unite in one representative body.

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In one study applying a mouse acute pneumonia model, Labandeira-Rey et al. Using purified toxin or a laboratory strain of S. The mice showed symptoms of severe illness. It is of interest that when comparing isogenic S.

They showed that the expression of PVL induces global changes in transcriptional levels of genes encoding secreted and cell-wall-anchored staphylococcal proteins, including SpA [ 73 ]. It should be mentioned that this statement is controversial: Diep and Otto [ ] explained that misinterpretation of the data due to the apparent lack of confirmatory experiments might have led to the model in which PVL plays a role in global gene regulation.

Also, other groups fail to detect any pathogenic function of PVL in murine model of pneumonia. Moreover, it was suggested that Hla, but not PVL, was essential for the pathogenesis of staphylococcal pneumonia [ 75 ]. Passive immunization with anti-PVL immune sera also failed to protect mice against challenge with USA in the murine pneumonia model [ 95 ], indicating that PVL is not necessary for the pathogenesis of pulmonary disease. Despite the role of PVL as a virulence factor in the lungs is controversial, the pulmonary immune response to PVL, especially responsiveness of alveolar macrophages to this toxin, is known [ ].

The recent study of Zivkovic et al. The alveolar macrophages are considered to represent the first line of defense against pathogens and express receptors, including TLRs, which recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns [ ]. These pathways further modulate proinflammatory gene expression, which is crucial in shaping the innate immune response within the respiratory tract [ ]. The idea that TLRs could play an important role in bacterial toxin recognition is not uncommon.

However, in contrast to data showing that LukF from S. The ability of PVL to induce inflammatory gene expression is independent of pore formation [ ]. These data are in line with previous observations, showing that both subunits of PVL are required to perform a pore [ ].

Furthermore, single submit LukS, but not LukF, is able to induce an inflammatory response, suggesting that inflammatory gene expression relies on cellular pathways independent of pore formation [ ]. The knowledge about host factors, which facilitate eradication of S. Surfactant protein A SP-A is the major protein component of pulmonary surfactant. It is involved in organization of large aggregates of surfactant phospholipids lining the alveolar surface and acts as an opsonin for pathogens [ ].

Previous studies established that SP-A modulates macrophage phagocytosis and a host pro- and anti-inflammatory responses that help in eradication of infection [ — ].

Recent study of Sever-Chroneos et al. Macrophage receptor SP-R is implicated in the ability of SP-A to coordinate the clearance of pathogens and apoptotic cells, and to participate in temporal control of inflammation in the lungs [ ].

Phagocytosis of SP-A-opsonized S. Finally, Sever-Chroneos et al. Binding of SP-A to SP-RS induces phagocytosis and release of anti-inflammatory mediators via association with SR-A, leading to an enhanced bacterial killing and resolution of the infection. Importantly, it is proposed that temporal control of inflammatory responses via SP-RS and SR-A contributes to the proper recruitment and activation of neutrophils, facilitating eradication of S.

The innate defense of the airway epithelial cells against S. Induction of the airway inflammation can be mediated by several staphylococcal determinants and corresponding receptors and is not necessarily dependent on the expression of a particular virulence factor that is crucial for the pathogenesis of S. Among many virulence factors produced by S. The role of PVL in lung infection is debated due to conflicting data. The shedding of the plasma membrane proteins represents an important mechanism underlying S.

In addition, the airway epithelial cells regulate their own signaling capabilities by shedding some epithelial receptors e. Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of known virulence factors and their implication in pneumonia in the last few years. Several new properties of S. A detailed analysis of function and mechanisms of action of each virulence factor could open the way to control the proinflammatory response in the lung by using specific inhibitors and may be helpful for the development of novel therapies for S.

Indexed in Web of Science. Subscribe to Table of Contents Alerts. Table of Contents Alerts. Abstract Airway epithelial cells play a major role in initiating inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. Introduction Although a relatively unspectacular, nonmotile coccoid bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus is a dangerous human pathogen in both community-acquired and nosocomial infections.

Virulence Factors of S. Adherence Factors Adhesins The attachment of S. Regulation of Virulence Factors in S. Known Virulence Factors of S. SpA SpA is a good example of one of known and well-characterized S. Aires De Sousa and H. View at Google Scholar T.

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