Management of substance abuse

The results showed that there was no significant difference between demographic variables in the two groups. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries. The fume or smoke of the herbe dried, and taken with a funnell, being burned therin, and receiued in such manner as we vse to take the sume of Tabaco, that is, with a crooked pipe made for the same purpose by the Potter, preuaileth against the cough of the lungs, the great ache or paine of the head, and clenseth the brest and inward parts. These minerals can pass through the cell wall so the cells can get the benefit of the minerals. Once your tongue is flexible enough and can enter into the sinus cavity, it will go straight up and bump against an area that is linked to your pineal gland. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted on high school female students with primary dysmenorrhea in in Sabzevar.

2.2 Switching from other Methods of Contraception

The Effects of Alcohol on Your Body

Those who possess the A1 allele variation of this polymorphism have a small but significant tendency towards addiction to opiates and endorphin-releasing drugs like alcohol. There are reliable tests for the actual use of alcohol, one common test being that of blood alcohol content BAC.

With regard to alcoholism, BAC is useful to judge alcohol tolerance , which in turn is a sign of alcoholism. However, none of these blood tests for biological markers is as sensitive as screening questionnaires.

The World Health Organization , the European Union and other regional bodies, national governments and parliaments have formed alcohol policies in order to reduce the harm of alcoholism. Increasing the age at which licit drugs of abuse such as alcohol can be purchased, the banning or restricting advertising of alcohol has been recommended as additional ways of reducing the harm of alcohol dependence and abuse.

Credible, evidence based educational campaigns in the mass media about the consequences of alcohol abuse have been recommended. Guidelines for parents to prevent alcohol abuse amongst adolescents, and for helping young people with mental health problems have also been suggested. Treatments are varied because there are multiple perspectives of alcoholism.

Those who approach alcoholism as a medical condition or disease recommend differing treatments from, for instance, those who approach the condition as one of social choice. Since alcoholism involves multiple factors which encourage a person to continue drinking, they must all be addressed to successfully prevent a relapse. An example of this kind of treatment is detoxification followed by a combination of supportive therapy, attendance at self-help groups, and ongoing development of coping mechanisms.

The treatment community for alcoholism typically supports an abstinence-based zero tolerance approach; however, some prefer a harm-reduction approach. Alcohol detoxification or 'detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs, such as benzodiazepines , that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal.

Individuals who are only at risk of mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms can be detoxified as outpatients. Individuals at risk of a severe withdrawal syndrome as well as those who have significant or acute comorbid conditions are generally treated as inpatients.

Detoxification does not actually treat alcoholism, and it is necessary to follow up detoxification with an appropriate treatment program for alcohol dependence or abuse to reduce the risk of relapse. Various forms of group therapy or psychotherapy can be used to deal with underlying psychological issues that are related to alcohol addiction, as well as provide relapse prevention skills.

The mutual-help group-counseling approach is one of the most common ways of helping alcoholics maintain sobriety. While most alcoholics are unable to limit their drinking in this way, some return to moderate drinking. This group, however, showed fewer initial symptoms of dependency. The study found abstinence from alcohol was the most stable form of remission for recovering alcoholics. In the United States there are four approved medications for alcoholism: The Sinclair method is a method of using naltrexone or another opioid antagonists to treat alcoholism by having the person take the medication about an hour before they drink alcohol, and only then.

Evidence does not support the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs , tricyclic antidepressants TCAs , antipsychotics , or gabapentin.

Alcoholics may also require treatment for other psychotropic drug addictions and drug dependences. These drugs are, like alcohol, depressants. Benzodiazepines may be used legally, if they are prescribed by doctors for anxiety problems or other mood disorders, or they may be purchased as illegal drugs. Benzodiazepine use increases cravings for alcohol and the volume of alcohol consumed by problem drinkers. Dependence on other sedative-hypnotics such as zolpidem and zopiclone as well as opiates and illegal drugs is common in alcoholics.

Alcohol itself is a sedative-hypnotic and is cross-tolerant with other sedative-hypnotics such as barbiturates , benzodiazepines and nonbenzodiazepines. Dependence upon and withdrawal from sedative-hypnotics can be medically severe and, as with alcohol withdrawal, there is a risk of psychosis or seizures if not properly managed. The World Health Organization estimates that as of there are million people with alcoholism worldwide 4. Within the medical and scientific communities, there is a broad consensus regarding alcoholism as a disease state.

For example, the American Medical Association considers alcohol a drug and states that "drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite often devastating consequences. It results from a complex interplay of biological vulnerability, environmental exposure, and developmental factors e. Under the DSM 's new definition of alcoholics, that means about 37 percent of college students may meet the criteria.

Alcoholism often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years. Approximately 3—15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide, [] and research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence. This is believed to be due to alcohol causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry, as well as social isolation.

Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 25 percent of suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse. Historically the name " dipsomania " was coined by German physician C. Hufeland in before it was superseded by "alcoholism". Biblical, Egyptian and Babylonian sources record the history of abuse and dependence on alcohol.

In some ancient cultures alcohol was worshiped and in others, its abuse was condemned. Excessive alcohol misuse and drunkenness were recognized as causing social problems even thousands of years ago. However, the defining of habitual drunkenness as it was then known as and its adverse consequences were not well established medically until the 18th century. In a Greek monk named Agapios was the first to document that chronic alcohol misuse was associated with toxicity to the nervous system and body which resulted in a range of medical disorders such as seizures, paralysis, and internal bleeding.

In the effects of alcohol abuse and chronic drunkenness led to the failed prohibition of alcohol in the United States , a nationwide constitutional ban on the production, importation, transportation, and sale of alcoholic beverages that remained in place until In alcohol dependence and abuse was estimated to cost the US economy approximately billion dollars per year, more than cancer and obesity.

The various health problems associated with long-term alcohol consumption are generally perceived as detrimental to society, for example, money due to lost labor-hours, medical costs due to injuries due to drunkenness and organ damage from long-term use, and secondary treatment costs, such as the costs of rehabilitation facilities and detoxification centers.

Alcohol use is a major contributing factor for head injuries , motor vehicle accidents due to drunk driving , domestic violence , and assaults.

Beyond the financial costs that alcohol consumption imposes, there are also significant social costs to both the alcoholic and their family and friends. Stereotypes of alcoholics are often found in fiction and popular culture. The " town drunk " is a stock character in Western popular culture.

Stereotypes of drunkenness may be based on racism or xenophobia , as in the fictional depiction of the Irish as heavy drinkers.

In Asian countries that have a high gross domestic product, there is heightened drinking compared to other Asian countries, but it is nowhere near as high as it is in other countries like the United States.

It is also inversely seen, with countries that have very low gross domestic product showing high alcohol consumption. They also believe alcohol is necessary at any social event as it helps conversations start. Caucasians have a much lower abstinence rate Also, the more acculturation there is between cultures, the more influenced the culture is to adopt Caucasians drinking practices.

Topiramate , a derivative of the naturally occurring sugar monosaccharide D-fructose, has been found effective in helping alcoholics quit or cut back on the amount they drink. Evidence suggests that topiramate antagonizes excitatory glutamate receptors, inhibits dopamine release, and enhances inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid function.

A review of the effectiveness of topiramate concluded that the results of published trials are promising, however, as of , data was insufficient to support using topiramate in conjunction with brief weekly compliance counseling as a first-line agent for alcohol dependence.

Topiramate effectively reduces craving and alcohol withdrawal severity as well as improving quality-of-life-ratings. Ondansetron , a 5HT3 antagonist, appears to have promise as a treatment.

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Alcoholism and our Genes. Scientific American , April , Vol. Archived from the original on 11 October Scand J Clin Lab Invest. Archived from the original on 26 February Archived from the original PDF on 23 January Treatments of psychiatric disorders 3 ed. Archived from the original on 21 May Archived from the original on 19 July Archived from the original on 28 July The separate parts are bound together by an entity-like core, and this, as director of the parts, has characteristic habits and expressions, just like a personality.

Now we are really speaking of the plant species as an untity, rather than the individual plant, because each individual reacts much the same as other members of the same the species. All have the same genetic programming. A bunch of chemicals by themselves could not navigate the many threats posed by evolution and natural selection; rather it is the intelligence of the specific life form that reacts to environmental stress.

This underlying personality in turn reflects the medicinal properties of the whole plant because it contains them and uses them altogether, in concert, for its own survival. Studying personality via the intuition. In order to understand a plant in such a way it is necessary to draw upon a wide range of resources than the material alone.

We might think of how we do this in regard to analyzing humans. Some are more hidden and some are more readily displayed. Some, like George Washington, Adolf Hitler, or Leonardo da Vinci, remain to some extent hidden, unknown, and inexplicable, while others, like Abraham Lincoln, Vincent Van Gogh, or Winston Churchill, seem almost to have poured themselves out, to the last drop, and left very little in hiding.

It is through their actions and appearance that we understand such people, not their chemistry, and it is the same with the medicinal powers of plants. In using them we gain experience and insight. Additional information is supplied by their taste, smell, touch, and appearance.

The natural history, stages of growth, and environmental niche supply additional knowledge. Chemical constituents contribute to our understanding, but they are not the basis for a well-rounded knowledge of either the medicinal properties, or the personality of the plant.

Undoubtedly we run a risk of anthropomorphizing our sense of plant identity, just as we tend to project our own characteristics on the people we study. If the scientist ignores the personality, because it is too subjective or does not leave material traces, then scientific knowledge is true within its own sphere, but incomplete from another perspective.

Plant properties and morphology. Among the old methods used to discern the essential nature of the plant is the doctrine of signatures.

The signatum, if rightly understood, reflects the innate energy pattern or personality of the plant very closely. The signature thus represents the stress the plant has survived and also its healing property. Closely related to the doctrine of signatures are the physical properties of the plant, such as we find through our senses.

The taste closely corresponds to the medicinal properties of the plant, a method used in traditional Chinese, Ayurvedic, and Western herbalism for millennia. These in turn often reflect the medicinal constituents located in the laboratory.

For instance, flavonoids are usually associated with fruit acids and thus with the sour taste, a taste which we like in hot weather for its cooling capacities lemonade, fruit, etc. As we analyze the properties and constituents of the plant we naturally find a need to express these properties in general terms. This gives rise to the doctrine of energetics. Thus, plants are divided into two categories, hot and cold, suited to the treatment of cold, stagnant, depressed conditions and hot, overexcited, irritated ones respectively.

Further categories include damp and dry. Dampness may be further subdivide into damp flowing which responds to astringents and damp stagnation which responds to alteratives. In the East another category, wind, represents spasm and tension. Energetic categories vary from culture to culture, but generally we have from two to six.

Another important area of insight comes to us through examination of the morphology and botanical kinship of a plant. Study of the morphology shape is closely related to the doctrine of signatures in some ways, but also more closely related to scientific interests.

This method comes down to us through the work of J. By understanding the shape of a plant through its different periods of growth, and in its different structures, as well as by relationship with its close kin, we can grasp its energy, personality, or essence. The study of the relationship of a plant to its kin is also important because there may be a relationship between the medicinal constituents and properties in the plant and its close relatives.

Finally we come to the scientific study of plant chemistry. We often find plant constituents listed in textbooks in a disorganized framework; in the plant of course they form a functional unit, each compound undertaking work necessary for plant survival. If we truly understand the energetics, taste, morphology, and signatures of a plant, we will begin to understand how these multiple constituents fall together into a meaningful whole, both for the plant and for the person who receives it as a medicine.

Our learning does not stop here, with the plant itself, but also includes the action of the plant on the human being. This means that we interact with the plant in our mind, emotions, and body. The plant has an effect on all levels. We can also take the plant to produce physiological symptoms, as is done in a homeopathic proving. Finally, however, it is in the actual use of the plant in a clinical setting that our knowledge become galvanized. As we see the plant work, in more and more cases, we understand more deeply and multifacetedly its personality and properties.

Conventional evidence-based medicine disapproves of the use of case histories for learning about the action of drugs or herbs, but it is here that the story line is richest and we have the most to learn. The argument is circular but, for myself, I choose to know the story of creation, in its large and small parts.

To illustrate these different methods of learning I have chosen a plant called sweet everlasting or rabbit tobacco in the United States. I chose this for two reasons, first because I came across a case history that indicated its use in a very hard to treat condition congenital asthma and second, because I knew it had an association with the spirit world in American Indian medicine tobacco is used for communication with spirits. Very late in my study the relationship between these two facts became clear, at least in my mind, and that led me to feel that I did in fact have a well founded understanding of this plant.

The everlastings are a group of plants known for the survival of their flowers in a dried, preserved state after the end of the growing season. The name is now applied generally to any plant which tends to be preserved in this way, but the original everlastings belonged to four closely related genii in the Asteraceae family: Gnaphalium, Anaphalis, Antennaria, and Helichrysum.

The term gnaphalium was subsequently adopted to describe the various everlastings. By the present time most everlastings, including members of all four genera, have been known by this name at some time in their history.

Changes in botanical nomenclature have separated them into four groups, but their kinship is apparent in appearance, popular names, and medicinal uses. If we look through the records of diverse times, cultures, and continents, we find general agreement in the use of the everlastings, except for one unusual member Gnaphalium arenarium.

In short, this wide group of plants needs to be studied as a whole to provide a context for the discussion of even one of its members. One of the most outstanding of the everlastings is Gnaphalium obtusifolium L.

Not only is it an everlasting but it has a beautiful scent and most remarkable of all , this smell is spontaneously emitted, from time to time, months and years after it was dried, due to changes in the moisture of the air or barometric pressure. Standing out in a field of sweet everlasting, when the first drops of rain fall, is quite an experience: Sweet everlasting is a prominent inhabitant of old sandy fields and meadows in eastern North America.

It was well known to the Indian people and still carries the name rabbit tobacco as testimony to their idea of its place in the universe. It is said that Rabbit, while untangling himself from a thicket, first discovered the properties of this plant as a cure for cuts.

Another story explains that Rabbit uses sweet everlasting as a tobacco to communicate with Creator, just as humans have their own kinds of tobacco. Yet, because of certain properties, it is avoided in smoking mixtures by others.

Upon the discovery of the North American continent by explorers from Europe, various everlastings were recognized as cousins of the Old World everlastings. Specimens were first identified as Gnaphalium Americanum, but due to a glitch in communication it was not clear where in the Western hemisphere they originated. The boat on which they arrived had been in both North and South America. Americanum became the technical name most commonly used by early writers on the American everlastings such as John Gerard of London, John Clayton of Virginia, and William Salmon of South Carolina and London.

In Linneus gave this particular species the name G. Michaux attempted to make an end run around Linneus, calling it G. It appears under both names in nineteenth century medical literature but today the Linnean denomination is considered correct.

The English settlers recognized this new plant as a relative of their own cudweed, cottonweed, or everlasting, but because of its beautiful smell it was known, in distinction to the others, as sweet everlasting.

Throughout its American range it is often associated with a cousin from which it needs to be distinguished, pearly everlasting Anaphalis margaritacea L. This plant has pearly white, unscented flowers, and overlaps in range. It tends to grow further to the north and west. It is also the chief predator of the rabbit. It is remarkable that few of these names betray Old World origins, and that the most common British names, cudweed and cottonweed Salmon, , were completely unknown in the New World.

Many settlers apparently saw this plant for the first time on the sandy coastal shores of eastern North America. The striking appearance stimulated their imagination to provide new names. At the time when the English settlers first arrived in North America the European everlastings were widely appreciated by housewives in Britain for their decorative potential Gerard, , , but they were hardly used in medicine.

However, as will be noted below, cudweed is still in use in English folk medicine today. In North America, the use of sweet everlasting as an indoor bouquet or posy was a well established folk custom among early Anglo-American housewives. I carry on this practice myself: Rabbit tobacco was also used in the home by American Indians, though here it was used, not just for its smell, but for protection against ghosts and witchcraft see Smith and Merring, below.

The popularity which rabbit tobacco achieved among the Anglo-American settlers as a medicine was probably due to Indian influence rather than European. Culpeper testifies that it was little used in England. The bestowal of new names also shows that Europe was probably not the origin of medical knowledge of this plant.

By the time Constantine Rafinesque wrote in , rabbit tobacco was well established as an American folk remedy for cuts, colds, asthma, diarrhea, and pain. It was used by lay healers and professional doctors. However, Gnaphalium never entered deeply into the medical tradition and today would be considered an obscure and seldom used medicinal agent by herbalists following the literary as opposed to the folk tradition.

It remains something of a folk remedy in the American South and is sometimes used by Eastern Europeans searching for Gnaphalium uliginosum. During the height of its popularity in the nineteenth century, Gnaphalium obtusifolium was given a homeopathic proving, i. These revolved mostly around muscular and skeletal issues, especially sciatica. Some of these symptoms were confirmed in practice, but due to its narrow scope Gnaphalium remained a remedy of little consequence in nineteenth century homeopathy and has largely passed into oblivion in contemporary homeopathy.

The fact that the traditional folk medical uses of the plant were not brought out in the provings may be significant. A good sense for the plant was not developed in the homeopathic provings or clinical experience. In the twentieth century the use of rabbit tobacco in herbal medicine and homeopathy declined significantly to the point where it must be considered mostly a local Southern folk remedy of sporadic application.

I first learned about its efficacy in congenital asthma from a woman in Virginia. However, sweet everlasting is still available in Western herbal commerce and it is still well known among American Indian people. The Gnaphaliums are native throughout the world. In North America there are about 10 representatives, plus a close cousin, Anaphalis margaritacea pearly everlasting. In Europe there are also about a dozen Gnaphaliums, as well as a few Antennarias. Then there is a fourth genus, Helichrysum, only found in the Old World.

Gnaphalium obtusifolium is the most common representative of the everlasting clan in eastern North America and the most easily recognized, with its distinct, pleasant smell. Rabbit tobacco is widely used among the Southern Indians.

The name is undeniably of American Indian origin. It is usually applied to Gnaphalium obtusifolium, but sometimes to Anaphalis margaritacea. Garret , 91, , an Eastern Cherokee,uses the name rabbit tobacco for Gnaphalium obtusifolium, Anaphalis margaritacea, and Antennaria plantaginifolia.

Garret treats us to a Cherokee folk tale describing the origin of the name. Rabbit was caught in the underbrush one day and while freeing himself he got cut. There was some sweet everlasting growing nearby and he quickly discovered that the plant was curative for cuts. This story reflects a knowledge of the habitat in which rabbits like to hide and feed thickets and their weaknesses. Rabbit skin is very thin and delicate. If a rabbit is chased by a dog or predator the skin can tear and bleed.

This tale does not explain the association with tobacco so I asked my friend Sondra Boyd, R. In the Rev. The reputation of sweet everlasting as a wound remedy was reported by Peter Kalm , He learned of it from John Bartram, the noted botanist widely traveled in both Indian and colonial America along the eastern seaboard. Bartram told me another use of this plant: Here we see the idea of the sweet everlasting pillow, which will be further encountered below.

James Mooney , , who studied extensively among the Eastern Cherokee, wrote about the use of Gnaphalium decurrens, winged cudweed or winged life everlasting. This species, now known as G.

It is probable that the two were not differentiated by the Cherokees. As the next source notes, it is also diaphoretic. Several books by modern Cherokee authors mention the use of rabbit tobacco. Hamel and Mary U. Decoction for colds; use with carolina vetch [Vicia caroliniana] for rheumatism; sweat bath for various diseases; warm liquid is blow down through through joy-pye-weed stem for clogged throat diphtheria ; ingredient in medicine for local pains, muscular cramps, and twitching; chew for sore mouth or throat; smoke for asthma; cough syrup.

The use of rabbit tobacco for cramps and twitchings reminds us of rabbit, a twitchy critter. We also find Gnaphalium obtusifolium to be a plant of importance among Indian people further west. Huron Smith , 30 reports its use by the Menomini Indians of central and northern Wisconsin. Smith himself was knowledgable about the use of herbs he often quotes the eclectic materia medica and was a sympathetic interviewer, so his information is unusually good compared with some other ethnobotanists.

When one has fainted this is used to bring him back to consciousness again, the smoke being blown into his nostrils. Then again, when one in the family has died, his spirit or ghost is supposed to come back to trouble the living.

Bad luck and nightmares will result to the family from the troublesome ghost. This smudge discourages and displeases the ghost which, after a fumigation of the premises with this smudge, leaves and never returns. Smith clearly sees the relationship between getting the soul of the conscious person back, and getting rid of the unwanted spirit haunting the house.

The use of Gnaphalium, to correct problems arising at the border between life and death will be further described below. It is helpful when the dead have been cut off from the living and have something they want to share or say, but it has potentially unpleasant side-effects and applications, so it has to be used with caution. The dried flowers are picked in the fall and, because the life still remains in them, Grandpa Red Elk would not allow them to be taken inside the house for another six months.

In American Indian folk lore the owl is often considered a very unwelcome guest around households because it is taken as a sign that someone is going to die. It is sometimes also associated with sorcerors. The owl is also a major predator of the rabbit. This is true of a picked clump or a stand of the plants in a field. Therefore, one has to be careful with both the wild and the picked plants, to make sure they are not carrying something unhealthy with them.

Although Paul Red Elk was unwilling to use sweet everlasting as a tobacco, another native American friend of mine had no such compunctions. As we move West we find that Anaphalis margaritacea or pearly everlasting is more often cited by Indian medicine practitioners, since it is available out onto the Great Plains and into the Rocky Mountains. Huron Smith , found that the Flambeau Ojibwe of northwestern Wisconsin, living outside the range of sweet everlasting, used pearly everlasting flowers on a fire to revive a person paralyzed from a stroke.

The Minnesota Ojibwe likewise used pearly everlasting combined with wild mint in a decoction, sprinkled on hot stones, as a medicine to revive from paralysis. The top is dried and placed upon a pan of live coals because it is supposed to hurt the eyes of the evil spirits and cause them to stay away from the house. As mentioned above, rabbit tobacco was one of the most important plants in the Cherokee pharmacopoeia. By contrast, the English cudweed was but little used. Thus, it seems likely that the use of Gnaphalium owes more to the American Indian than the European materia medica.

Very few people were in a position to compare the two plants, though one person who does so was the English herbalist William Salmon , He attributes to it the same properties as the English cudweed Antennaria dioeca. This was certainly the impression of the nineteenth century physicians who stood closer to the folk tradition than we ourselves. Nevertheless, the point has to be made that English cudweed was used on almost the exact same indications as rabbit tobacco.

Charles Millspaugh , 89 gives the following synopsis of the medicinal history of Gnaphalium obtusifolium. The herb, as a masticatory, has always been a popular remedy, on account of its astringent properties, in ulceration of the mouth and fauces and for quinsy.

A hot decoction proves pectoral and somewhat anodyne, as well as sudorific in early stages of fevers. A cold infusion has been much used in diarrhea, dysentery, and hemorrhage of the bowels, and is somewhat vermifugal; it is also recommended in leucorrhea. The fresh juice is considered anti-venereal.

Hot fomentations of the herb have been used like Arnica for sprains and bruises, and form a good vulnerary for painful tumors, and unhealthy ulcers. The dried flowers are recommended as a quieting filling for the pillows of consumptives. Rabbit tobacco was also used as a medicine in the Afro-American community, according to Dr. The first detailed report on the folk medical uses of the everlastings comes from Constantine Rafinesque , , professor of botany at Transylvania College, in Kentucky.

He uses the names Gnaphalium margaritacea, cudweed, silver leaf and none so pretty. They are mild astringents and vermifuges, used in dysentery and hemorrhage, in powder or decoction. Externally they are applied to tumors, contusions and sprains as a wash. They are given in a disease of sheep. In the twentieth century the use of the everlastings in folk medicine largely died out. One of the few herbalists in the literature I have been able to find who regularly used rabbit tobacco in the late twentieth century was Tommie Bass, a folk practitioner located on Shinbone Ridge in northern Georgia Crellin and Philpott, , 2: He used rabbit tobacco quite a bit, especially as an ingredient in his favorite cough syrup, a recipe for which is given below.

He notes that people formerly used to smoke it. He lists the following uses, which are fairly standard in folk medicine: Bass made a cough syrup that included rabbit tobacco that was very popular with his customers.

He mentions it five times, giving five different formulations, but the basic compound seemed to be: His formulation for commerce added yellow root, redshank red root and sumach leaf Ibid. Hale was the nineteenth century homeopath most responsible for the introduction of many widely used American herbal medicines into homeopathy.

His writings show him to be well acquainted with the folk medical uses and the literature of botanical medicine. However, Hale does give a history of its use in homeopathy, the major symptoms derived from its proving, and the symptoms confirmed in practice. Woodbury and others of Boston. Its sphere of action appears to include certain nerves of the face and lower extremities, and the mucous membrane of the bowels. The provings show it to cause an intermittent neuralgia of the superior maxillary nerve of both sides, and an occipital headache, with shooting pains in the eyeballs.

Woodbury has lately reported a case cured. By reference to the provings, you will see that the pain is attended by cramps of the calves and feet, and a numbness which takes the place of the pain, at times.

It seems to faintly resemble Colocynth and Veratrum album. McGeorge added some clinical observations and case histories.

The leg was cramped and drawn up, worse in cold and damp weather Clarke, , I: The pains were paroxysmal, coming on when walking, occasionally while lying down. In several instances the pan extended down the right cord into the testicle and caused him to draw up the leg, flexing the thigh on the abdomen.

A few doses of Gnaphalium 1x cured him completely. The second case was a widow, aged 68, who had severe pains in the outer side of the right thigh for six years, during part of which time she had been confined to bed.

The pains were paroxysmal, cutting, tearing, extending down the course of the sciatic nerve. Attacks were worse at night and more frequent, causing her to roll about the bed and cry out with the pain.

After unsuccessful allopathic and homeopathic treatment Gnaphalium 1x was given with gradual improvement. In eight weeks the cure was complete Ibid. Edwin Hale gives a list of symptoms produced in the homeopathic provings.

I have selected what I thought were the most promising from the list. William Boericke , , fifty years later, includes the more proven and characteristic symptoms, but does not add many new ones. Note that asthmatic and respiratory symptoms, so important in traditional literature in both North America and Europe, were not produced by the provings, except for the suggestion of maxillary sinus problems. Dull, heavy expression of countenance; face appears bloated. Fullness about the temples.

Neuralgic pain, of a intermittent form, of the superior maxillary of both sides. Tongue covered with long white fur. Flatus of the stomach, windy eructations, nausea and hiccough. Colic pains in various parts of the abdomen, which is sensitive to pressure confirmed. Vomiting and purging, like cholera morbus confirmed. Borborygmus abdominal bloating , with much emission of flatus.

Diarrhea, with irritable temper; pains in the bowels of children confirmed. Constipation for three days after the diarrhea. Fullness and tension in the bladder. Pain in the kidneys. Irritation of the prostate confirmed. Dysmenorrhea; menses scanty and painful the first day; weight and fullness in the pelvis McGeorge.

Debility and rheumatic pains in arms. Chronic backache in lumbar region. Lumbago; pain and numbness. Intense pain along the sciatic nerve confirmed, Shelton. Frequent cramps of the calves of the legs. Cramps of the feet when in bed. Rheumatic pains in the knee and ankle joints. Pains alternating with numbness confirmed, Clarke. The European Gnaphaliums suffer from as much or more nomenclatural confusion than the American.

In addition to being mixed up with the Antennarias, they are also crisscrossed with the Helichrysums. And like their American cousins, they are not generally used in professional, or even folk medicine. An exception to all this bother is the marsh everlasting, Gnaphalium uliginosum L. It has also been markedly free of nomenclatural confusion.

The second member of this family that figures in medicine is Gnaphalium dioecum L. Thus, it has a long, but not very extensive, history of medicinal use. A third member of the clan sometimes applied as a medicine is Gnaphalium arenarium, also classified as Helichrysum arenarium. It is native to Germany, Scandinavia, and Russia, as far east as Japan. The fourth member of the family used in medicine is Gnaphalium stoechas L. The distilled oil is an essential article in aromatherapy. It is known either as helichrysum or immortelle.

Interestingly, it is used in a manner similar to the other everlastings. A short review of the medicinal history each of these four plants would help keep them straight. He recommends it administered in sour wine, i. His contemporary, Plinius, recommended it for quinsy or tonsillitis.

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