Hillary Destroys Syria, Blames Russia

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And this is new. Decision-making in the US State Department, the CIA and the Pentagon is instrumental in supporting this highly profitable multibillion dollar trade, third in commodity value after oil and the arms trade. Drink with a straw to help push the drinks beyond the painful parts of your mouth. It used to be all we had to worry about was our local community, maybe our country. Smith , William A.

The 2018 Ig Nobel Prize Winners

Flint water crisis

In his annual State of the State address on January 19, , Snyder announced that he would release all of his emails from and regarding the crisis. The New York Times summarized, "the documents provide a glimpse of state leaders who were at times dismissive of the concerns of residents, seemed eager to place responsibility with local government and, even as the scientific testing was hinting at a larger problem, were reluctant to acknowledge it.

On January 22, , two MDEQ employees Liane Shekter Smith, former chief of the department's Office of Drinking Water and Municipal Assistance; and Steve Busch, former district supervisor in the division were suspended, pending an investigation, as a result of questions regarding actions related to water testing in Flint.

In response, Snyder said, "Michiganders need to be able to depend on state government to do what's best for them and in the case of the DEQ that means ensuring their drinking water is safe. Some DEQ actions lacked common sense and that resulted in this terrible tragedy in Flint. I look forward to the results of the investigation to ensure these mistakes don't happen again. This lack of clarity can foster litigation over what response times are reasonable. The money will be used to hire two special prosecutors.

On January 14, U. Representative Brenda Lawrence , Democrat, of Southfield , formally requested congressional hearings on the crisis, saying: Representative Dan Kildee from Flint gave an opening statement. Del Toral to the problem. On February 10, , a separate committee, the U. On April 13, , the U. On February 23, , the Michigan State Legislature started a committee to investigate the crisis. On March 29, , the state's Joint Committee on the Flint Water Public Health Emergency held a hearing on the crisis in Flint during which residents and local experts testified.

On December 15, , Mayor Weaver declared the water issue as a citywide public health state of emergency to prompt help from state and federal officials. Starting on January 7, , Genesee County Sheriff Robert Pickell had work crews of offenders sentenced to community service begin delivering bottled water, water filters and replacement cartridges, primarily to residents living in homes built between and , whose plumbing systems are most likely leaching lead into the water.

The next week, he ordered his department to begin using reverse to advise homebound residents on how to get help.

On January 10, Mayor Weaver stressed to residents that it was important to also pick up the testing kits, as the city would like to receive at least water test samples per week. On January 12, officers from the Michigan State Police and Genesee County Sheriff's Department started delivering cases of water, water filters, lead testing kits and replacement cartridges to residents who needed them. On January 14, it was announced Dr. On January 6, Snyder ordered the Michigan Emergency Operations Center, operated by the Michigan State Police Emergency Management and Homeland Security Division, to open a Joint Information Center to coordinate public outreach and field questions from the residents about the problems caused by the crisis.

They also advised residents to call the United Way to receive additional help if needed. On January 11, Snyder signed an executive order creating a new committee to "work on long-term solutions to the Flint water situation and ongoing public health concerns affecting residents. On January 27, Snyder announced the establishment of the new member Flint Water Interagency Coordinating Committee to "make recommendations regarding the health and welfare of people exposed to lead, study Flint's water infrastructure and determine potential upgrades, review Flint Water Task Force recommendations, and establish ways to improve communication between local and state government.

On March 2, Snyder announced the state will partner with the employment agency Michigan Works! Association to hire 81 Flint residents to work at water distribution sites throughout the city. On March 21, Governor Snyder released a point relief plan for addressing the crisis, which includes programs in the fields of health and human services, education, water supply and infrastructure replacements, and jobs and economic development. The President's action authorizes the Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA , to coordinate all disaster relief efforts which have the purpose of alleviating the hardship and suffering caused by the emergency on the local population, and to provide appropriate assistance for required emergency measures, authorized under Title V of the Stafford Act , to save lives and to protect property and public health and safety, and to lessen or avert the threat of a catastrophe in Genesee County.

FEMA is authorized to provide equipment and resources to alleviate the impacts of the emergency. Emergency protective measures, limited to direct federal assistance, will be provided at 75 percent federal funding.

This emergency assistance is to provide water, water filters, water filter cartridges, water test kits, and other necessary related items for a period of no more than 90 days. Craig Fugate wrote a letter to Snyder saying that the water contamination "does not meet the legal definition of a 'major disaster'" under federal law because "[t]he incident was not the result of a natural catastrophe , nor was it created by a fire, flood or explosion.

He will also ask for money and emergency protective measures, according to the release. The EPA issued a Safe Drinking Water Act Emergency Order and took over collecting and testing of water samples, while ordering state agencies to send them previously collected data, on January On March 1, the U.

Department of Health and Human Services announced plans to expand its Head Start Program to more Flint children affected by the crisis. On March 23, the U. About temporary jobs at water distribution centers throughout the city will be created through the grant. The workers will take the place of the Michigan National Guard soldiers who have been in place since January. On April 20, , criminal charges were filed against three people in regards to the crisis by Michigan Attorney General Bill Schuette.

Former MDEQ employees Michael Prysby and Stephen Busch are charged with misconduct in office, conspiracy to tamper with evidence, tampering with evidence, a treatment violation of the Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act, and a monitoring violation of the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act ; [] former city water plant operator Michael Glasgow was charged with willful neglect of office, a misdemeanor, and felony tampering with evidence.

On July 29, , Schuette charged six additional people with crimes in the crisis, three from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and three from the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. From the MDEQ, Liane Shekter-Smith was charged with misconduct in office and willful neglect of duty; Adam Rosenthal was charged with misconduct in office, conspiracy to tamper with evidence, tampering with evidence, and neglect; Adam Cook was charged with misconduct in office, conspiracy to engage in misconduct in office, and neglect of duty.

Miller retired in April and Shekter-Smith was fired in February. The Attorney General's office says it has 10—15 witnesses in each case and roughly 50 exhibits in total. On December 20, , Schuette filed false pretenses, conspiracy to commit false pretenses, willful neglect of duty and misconduct in office charges against former Emergency Managers Darnell Earley and Jerry Ambrose; and false pretenses and conspiracy to commit false pretenses charges against former Flint Utilities Administrator Daugherty Johnson and former Flint Department of Public Works director Howard Croft.

Also charged was Dr. Eden Wells, chief medical executive of DHHS, who faces allegations of obstruction of justice and lying to a police officer. Lyon was also charged with a single count of misconduct in office after being accused of having received notice of the Legionnaires' outbreak at least a year before informing the public and the governor, while Wells is also accused of threatening to withhold funding to the Flint Area Community Health and Environment Partnership unless the partnership ceased its investigation into the source of the Legionnaires' outbreak.

Wells was charged with involuntary manslaughter and misconduct in office. On November 13, , four families filed a federal class-action lawsuit in the U. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan in Detroit against Governor Rick Snyder and thirteen other city and state officials, including former Flint Mayor Dayne Walling and ex- emergency financial manager Darnell Earley , who was in charge of the city when the switch to the Flint River was made.

The complaint alleges that the officials acted recklessly and negligently , leading to serious injuries from lead poisoning , including autoimmune disorders , skin lesions , and " brain fog. Their attorneys filed an appeal on February 6. The legal doctrines of sovereign immunity which protects the state from suit and official immunity which in Michigan shields top government officials from personal liability, even in cases of gross negligence resulted in comparatively few lawsuits being filed in the Flint case, and caused large national plaintiffs' law firms to be reluctant to become involved with the case.

A separate suit was filed in January in the Michigan Court of Claims against the governor and state agencies; that suit alleges violations of the state constitution. A new federal lawsuit filed on January 27, , seeks the replacement of all lead service lines in Flint at no cost to residents following claims city and state leaders violated federal laws designed to protect drinking water. It is also asking the court to force city and state officials to provide safe drinking water to Flint residents and require them to follow federal regulations for testing and treating water to control for lead.

On February 2, , a class action lawsuit in U. District Court and states they must be addressed by the Environmental Protection Agency, and the case should be re-filed in the Michigan Court of Claims. Also on February 2, a lawsuit was filed in Michigan Circuit Court on behalf of four Genesee County residents who contracted Legionnaires' disease during the Flint water crisis, including one woman who died seven days after entering the emergency room with a headache.

Lawyer Geoffrey Fieger represents the plaintiffs. On February 8, the parents of a two-year-old girl diagnosed with high blood lead levels filed a lawsuit in federal court, naming as defendants the City of Flint, the State of Michigan, Snyder, Earley, and Walling.

On March 3, , a new lawsuit was filed in state court by LeeAnne Walters, the Flint mother who informed the EPA water expert Miguel Del Toral of the health problems her family experienced after the water switch, against multiple corporate entities and three current and former government employees for their role in the city's water crisis.

It argues officials failed to take action over "dangerous levels of lead" in drinking water and "downplayed the severity of the contamination. On March 8, , a federal class action lawsuit was filed on behalf of county inmates against the Genesee County Sheriff's Department in regards to the water quality at the Genesee County Jail.

The suit seeks only an injunction that will order the sheriff's department to continue to serve inmates only bottled water and dry food that doesn't require water to prepare. On April 6, , a class action lawsuit brought by 15 Flint residents accused Governor Snyder and several state agencies and government officials of being in violation of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act in regards to the crisis.

On May 18, , the NAACP sued the state of Michigan and Governor Snyder, seeking compensation for property damages, pain and suffering damages, emotional distress damages and medical monitoring for Flint residents and businesses. The lawsuit accuses Veolia and LAN of professional negligence and public nuisance. Veolia is also accused of fraud. Veolia called the accusations "baseless, entirely unfounded and [appearing] to be intended to distract from the troubling and disturbing realities that have emerged as a result of this tragedy," and then added, "In fact, when Veolia raised potential lead and copper issues, city officials and representatives told us to exclude it from our scope of work because the city and the EPA were just beginning to conduct lead and copper testing.

Stern, of Levy Konigsberg, L. Judge Yuille called for a small number of lawsuits related to the Flint Water Crisis to serve as bellwethers, cases that will be fully developed and tried to verdict with the idea that they will help attorneys in other cases evaluate whether to settle or take their cases to trial.

These figures encompass infrastructure alone, excluding any public health costs of the disaster. DEQ interim director Keith Creagh said that estimation of total costs would be premature. Hanna-Attisha expects to arise from the lead issue. It also will fund lab testing, corrosion control procedures, a study of water-system infrastructure, potentially help Flint deal with unpaid water bills, case management of people with elevated lead-blood levels, assessment of potential linkages to other diseases, crisis counseling and mental health services, and the replacement of plumbing fixtures in schools, child care centers, nursing homes and medical facilities.

On January 28, Democratic U. Senate on February At a news conference on February 9, , Flint mayor Karen Weaver said that the city would remove and replace all of the city's 15, water service lines containing lead piping. Work was expected to begin in March The project will receive technical advice from the Lansing Board of Water and Light, which removed over 13, lead pipes in Lansing, Michigan.

Lansing mayor Virg Bernero volunteered to provide the assistance. Weaver appointed Michael C. The city government hopes to complete the project within a year, using 32 work crews, with priority given to the most at-risk households. On February 16, the state hired Flint-based engineering firm Rowe Professional Services to begin the process of locating, removing, and eventually replacing lead pipes in the highest risk areas of Flint.

On October 10, city council approved contracts to replace pipes at more homes before winter. On October 17, the second phase of the program was completed on homes. A University of Michigan study released on December 1, stated a total of 29, lead pipes need to be replaced. Childhood lead exposure causes a reduction in intellectual functioning and IQ , academic performance , and problem-solving skills, and an increased risk of attention deficit disorder , aggression, and hyperactivity.

According to studies, children with elevated levels of lead in the blood are more likely as adults to commit crimes, be imprisoned, be unemployed or underemployed, or be dependent on government services. Because the developmental effects of lead exposure appear over a series of years, [] the total long-term cost of the Flint water crisis "will not be apparent in the short term.

Philippe Grandjean of the Harvard T. Chan School of Public Health , an expert in the effects of environmental pollution on brain development, said that "when calculated from the loss of lifetime income, the societal costs from lead exposure across the United States reach billion-dollar amounts.

It has passed the House but has yet to be passed by the Senate. Amash opined that "the U. Constitution does not authorize the federal government to intervene in an intrastate matter like this one. President Donald Trump 's plan to fix the crisis in Michigan has been folded into his federal infrastructure plan. On March 2, House Democratic leader Tim Greimel called on Governor Snyder to resign, due to his "negligence and indifference" in his handling of the Flint water crisis.

Democratic Presidential nominee Hillary Clinton repeatedly mentioned the crisis during her campaign, saying: And they deserve a solution, fast. Thousands of children may have been exposed to lead, which could irreversibly harm their health and brain functioning. Senator and called for further funding for healthcare and education for children who will suffer the negative effects of lead exposure on behavior and educational attainment.

The crisis was also the catalyst for a town hall style debate in Flint between Clinton and Democratic rival Bernie Sanders on March 6, , two days before the Michigan Presidential primary election. Both candidates called for Governor Snyder to resign during the event. A thing like that shouldn't happen. Now cars are made in Mexico, and you can't drink the water in Flint.

An investigative report by Reuters released December 19, found nearly 3, areas in the United States with lead poisoning rates at least double those in Flint. The water disaster called attention to the problem of aging and seriously neglected water infrastructure nationwide. In the aftermath of the water crisis, it was noted that elevated blood-lead levels in children are found in many cities across Michigan, including Detroit, Grand Rapids , Muskegon , and Adrian.

Although statewide childhood lead-poisoning rates have dramatically declined since the removal of lead from gasoline , certain areas of the state particularly low-income areas with older housing stock continue to experience lead poisoning, mostly from lead paint in homes built before and lead residue in dust and soil.

Lead abatement efforts are slow. Civil rights advocates characterized the crisis as a result of environmental racism Flint's population is Systemic Racism Through the Lens of Flint".

Its writers said of it, "Policy makers, government leaders, and decision makers at many levels failed the residents of Flint," said Agustin Arbulu, Director of the Michigan Department of Civil Rights. Rather, the response is the result of implicit bias and the history of systemic racism that was built into the foundation of Flint. The lessons of Flint are profound. While the exact situation and response that happened in Flint may never happen anywhere else, the factors that led to this crisis remain in place and will most certainly lead to other tragedies if we don't take steps to remedy them.

We hope this report is a step in that direction. Rick Snyder spokeswoman Anna Heaton. Now is the time to address this flawed law," Ananich said. He went on to say, "The people of Flint deserve the same level of safety, opportunity and justice that any other city in Michigan enjoys". On October 8, , the editorial board of the Detroit Free Press wrote that the crisis was "an obscene failure of government" and criticized Snyder. On December 31, , the editorial board of the MLive group of Michigan newspapers called upon Snyder to "drop executive privilege and release all of his communications on Flint water," establish a procedure for compensating families with children suffering from elevated lead blood levels, and return Flint to local control.

Some of the most important reporting on the crisis was conducted by investigative reporter Curt Guyette, who works not for a news organization but for the American Civil Liberties Union 's Michigan Democracy Watch Project. MSNBC host Rachel Maddow has extensively reported on the water crisis on her show since December , keeping it in the national spotlight. In January , the watchdog group Common Cause called upon Snyder to release all documents related to the Flint water crisis.

The governor's office is not subject to the Michigan Freedom of Information Act. The hacktivist group Anonymous released a YouTube video calling for the arrest of Snyder. Every agency involved in this scheme reported directly to you.

The children of Flint didn't have a choice as to whether or not they were going to get to drink clean water. Ten people have been killed here because of a political decision. In a post on her Facebook page, environmental activist Erin Brockovich called the water crisis a "growing national concern" and said that the crisis was "likely" connected to the Legionnaires' disease outbreak.

Brockovich called for the U. Environment Protection Agency to become involved in the investigation, saying that the EPA's "continued silence has proven deadly.

On January 16, , the Reverend Jesse Jackson met with Mayor Weaver in Flint and said of the crisis, "The issue of water and air and housing and education and violence are all combined.

The problem here obviously is more than just lack of drinkable water. We know the problems here and they will be addressed. On January 18, Nontombi Naomi Tutu, daughter of Desmond Tutu , said in a speech at the University of Michigan—Flint , "We actually needed the people of Flint to remind the people of this country what happens when political expediency, when financial concerns, overshadow justice and humanity.

On January 24, actor and clean drinking water advocate Matt Damon called for Snyder's resignation. On March 7, actor Mark Ruffalo , head of the group Water Defense, visited Flint and called for more federal aid in the emergency and Snyder's resignation while saying, "It's an absolute outrage, it's a moral indecency.

Their findings were disputed by Virginia Tech water expert Dr. Marc Edwards on May 31, World Peace , Charles Carroll member of the group of YouTube comedians " Million Dollar Extreme " delivers a monologue where he describes how viewers can recreate the contaminated water in Flint.

In his monologue, the right wing leaning Carroll discusses the concept of tyrannicide with costars Sam Hyde and Andrew Ruse and claims that the situation in Flint is a situation where the violent murder of Republican leadership in the state of Michigan would be justified. During its winter semester, the University of Michigan—Flint offered a one-credit, eight-session series of public forums dedicated to educating Flint residents and students on the crisis.

Wayne State University in Detroit is leading a separate study with five other schools focusing on the Legionnaires' outbreak called the Flint Area Community Health and Environment Partnership. On August 7, , West Virginia University published a study validating the correlation between the intake of lead contaminated water and the increase of fetal deaths along with miscarriages during November to March The data was constructed over the course of two years focusing on the city of Flint and how the data differs among neighboring cites in Michigan.

The crisis highlighted a lack of transparency in Michigan government; the state is one of just two states that exempts the governor's office from state freedom-of-information legislation. Robby Soave, writing in Reason magazine, said that administrative bloat in public-sector trade unions was to blame for the crisis: Private companies didn't run the system or profit from it," Shikha Dalmia wrote in Reason Magazine. Marc Edwards spoke there two days later. On April 20, Stephen Estes-Smargiassi, director of planning and sustainability at the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority , told a forum on lead water contamination at the Harvard School of Public Health that a chain-reaction of failures, including those by the financial managers, allowed the water crisis to develop as long as it did.

He stated "What happened in Flint? Well, a firestorm of things that went wrong. Flint changed its source water, didn't do a good job on corrosion control in their treatment", and added "They had, about half of the homes had lead service lines. Money was more important to the emergency manager than people were. That's pretty clear from the evidence," and later went on to say, "State regulators could have picked up on this, but fell down on the job, maybe worse than that.

We'll see what happens to those who were indicted. And the federal regulators could have picked up the problem, but didn't until quite late. All of those things, that firestorm of events, resulted in really awful water quality. Failed infrastructure and economic decline resulted in the toxic levels of lead in the city's water supply.

Upholding the Clean Water Act passed in would have prevented an outbreak of lead poisoning in Flint. This act "established the basic structure for regulating pollutant discharges into the waters of the United States". This plan was created in November to decrease the amount of pollution in water. As the water crisis unfolded, residents experienced considerable anxiety over the physical and mental health impacts of lead poisoning on both adults and children, stress, and anger and political leaders.

Some adults felt guilty about giving children contaminated water, and in some cases family members stopped visiting. Some residents related the water crisis to depression and even thoughts of suicide; some sought treatment for mental breakdowns. Volunteer social workers arrived from across the state, and the United States Public Health Service offered training. The Flint water crisis has attracted a substantial amount of philanthropic support from a wide variety of individuals and organizations, with donations often focused on bottled water or money.

This total reflects donations from many of the celebrities mentioned in this section, as well as from other groups and organizations. This money has gone to fund not only immediate aid for the Flint crisis such as bottled water distribution , but also to build community organizations and infrastructure in Flint. This money has not gone to actually repairing the Flint water system, which remains the responsibility of local and state governments. The Ruth Mott foundation says much of their work is going towards helping Flint's children, in the form of programs for health, nutrition, and education.

The United Auto Workers union donated drinking water to Flint via a caravan of trucks to local food banks, and an AmeriCorps team announced that it would deploy to Flint to assist in response efforts. Singer Aretha Franklin said she will provide hotel rooms and food for 25—50 Flint residents. Walmart , The Coca-Cola Company , Nestlé and PepsiCo announced that they would collectively donate a total of truckloads of water up to 6.

The police fraternity Brothers Before Others donated cases of water bottles, one-gallon 1. Amtrak donated 30, bottles of water to Flint. The United Church of Christ and the Disciples of Christ, two Flint-area Protestant denominations worked together to launch a water distribution effort. Flint Jewish Federation worked in partnership with the American Red Cross to help get clean water to homes.

A benefit concert to support children affected by the crisis presented by Flint country music station Nash FM A fundraiser called Fashion For Flint held in late January helped raised money to purchase 10, bottles of water. The Flint crisis has been the subject of many documentaries, as well as fictional dramatizations.

How a whole city was poisoned" about the crisis. It has been described as a "riveting, authoritative account of the government blunders, mendacity and arrogance" that caused the crisis. In May , it was announced that Dr. Mona Hanna-Attisha was in the process of writing a "dramatic first-hand account" of the Flint Water Crisis. On January 28, , rapper Jon Connor from Flint released a song titled "Fresh Water for Flint" about the crisis and how it has affected his family.

In the spring of , Associate professor of conducting at the University of Colorado Boulder , Andrea Ramsey, in reaction to the Flint water crisis, composed a choral song titled, "But a Flint Holds Fire". Children choirs throughout the country have performed the song.

Michigan native and actor Jeff Daniels directed a play called Flint , a "heartfelt and brutally honest story of two couples struggling to endure and believe in the American dream" set in , at his Purple Rose Theatre in Chelsea, Michigan. It ran from January 18 through March 10, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Flint Water Crisis. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: This section is redundant. Use the article's intro section to concisely summarize the article, and incorporate this sections details into the article's body. Please help improve this section if you can.

June Learn how and when to remove this template message. This section is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this section to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. This section should be merged with the rest of the article. Lead poisoning and Blood lead level.

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United States presidential election, This section should be condensed to summarize total donations and their impact, and focus less on individual events or donations. Instead of having a paragraph for each work, consolidate into short listings in "Further reading" section, and remove redundant works that don't add anything beyond this article and other works listed.

Ecology portal Environment portal Michigan portal Water portal. American Journal of Public Health. Retrieved January 30, Retrieved January 16, Retrieved January 29, Retrieved February 27, Retrieved June 29, Retrieved February 9, Retrieved November 29, Flint cuts water flow from Detroit after nearly 50 years". Retrieved November 13, Detroit terminated its contract with the city effective April 17 last year when Flint decided to purchase water through the KWA.

Retrieved May 8, Retrieved February 13, Retrieved February 23, Retrieved March 3, Retrieved March 30, Says risky to switch water source again".

Retrieved April 24, Retrieved June 14, Retrieved October 17, Retrieved March 1, More than 30, water samples have been tested in Flint since the crisis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences: Retrieved February 6, No more free bottled water for Flint residents".

Retrieved April 7, Retrieved April 13, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved April 25, Retrieved April 27, Nestlé to Donate Water to Flint Colorlines". Retrieved May 14, Retrieved January 11, Retrieved August 14, Retrieved May 31, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved April 8, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Retrieved March 24, Rick Snyder declares end of financial emergency". Michigan Live Media Group. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved December 6, It's terminating water contract covering Flint, Genesee County in one year".

Retrieved January 9, Retrieved June 17, Retrieved February 8, Retrieved February 4, The Detroit Free Press. Retrieved March 2, Retrieved September 2, Taylor, Applied Microbiology, vol.

Barbeito was unable to travel, due to health reasons. A representative read his acceptance speech for him. The executives and directors of Goldman Sachs , AIG , Lehman Brothers , Bear Stearns , Merrill Lynch , and Magnetar for creating and promoting new ways to invest money — ways that maximize financial gain and minimize financial risk for the world economy, or for a portion thereof. Alessandro Pluchino , Andrea Rapisarda , and Cesare Garofalo of the University of Catania, Italy, for demonstrating mathematically that organizations would become more efficient if they promoted people at random.

Catherine Douglas was unable to travel because she recently gave birth; she sent a photo of herself, her new daughter dressed in a cow suit, and a cow. Stephan Bolliger, Steffen Ross , Lars Oesterhelweg , Michael Thali and Beat Kneubuehl of the University of Bern, Switzerland, for determining — by experiment — whether it is better to be smashed over the head with a full bottle of beer or with an empty bottle. Thali and Beat P. Kneubuehl, Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, vol. The directors, executives, and auditors of four Icelandic banks — Kaupthing Bank, Landsbanki, Glitnir Bank, and Central Bank of Iceland — for demonstrating that tiny banks can be rapidly transformed into huge banks, and vice versa — and for demonstrating that similar things can be done to an entire national economy.

Report of the Special Investigation Commission , issued April 12, Castaño of Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, for creating diamonds from liquid — specifically from tequila. Also published as Reviews on Advanced Materials Science , vol. Unger, of Thousand Oaks, California, USA, for investigating a possible cause of arthritis of the fingers, by diligently cracking the knuckles of his left hand — but never cracking the knuckles of his right hand — every day for more than sixty 60 years.

Unger, Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. Shapiro of the University of Texas, USA, for analytically determining why pregnant women don't tip over. Ireland's police service An Garda Siochana , for writing and presenting more than fifty traffic tickets to the most frequent driving offender in the country — Prawo Jazdy — whose name in Polish means "Driving License". Bodnar , Raphael C. Lee, and Sandra Marijan of Chicago, Illinois, USA, for inventing a brassiere that, in an emergency, can be quickly converted into a pair of protective face masks , one for the brassiere wearer and one to be given to some needy bystander.

Massimiliano Zampini of the University of Trento, Italy and Charles Spence of Oxford University, UK, for electronically modifying the sound of a potato chip to make the person chewing the chip believe it to be crisper and fresher than it really is. Urs Thurnherr , member of the committee. An Experimental Approach ," Astolfo G. Franc, Veterinary Parasitology, vol.

Marie-Christine Cadiergues and Christel Joubert, unable to attend the ceremony, were presented with the prize at a special ceremony, later in the month, at the Genoa Science Festival.

Economic Evidence for Human Estrus? Jordan, Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. Raymer and Douglas E. Smith, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. Chiang all of Taiwan for discovering that it is not.

Hill, and Deborah J. Anderson, New England Journal of Medicine, , vol. Chiang, Human Toxicology, vol. David Sims of Cass Business School. London, UK, for his lovingly written study "You Bastard: Mahadevan, Physical Review Letters, fol. Passini, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. Mayu Yamamoto of the International Medical Center of Japan, for developing a way to extract vanillin -- vanilla fragrance and flavoring -- from cow dung.

Toscanini's Ice Cream , the finest ice cream shop in Cambridge, Massachusetts, created a new ice cream flavor in honor of Mayu Yamamoto, and introduced it at the Ig Nobel ceremony. The flavor is called "Yum-a-Moto Vanilla Twist.

Juan Manuel Toro , Josep B. Animal Behavior Processes, vol. The winners could not travel to the ceremony, so they instead delivered their acceptance speech via recorded video. Glenda Browne of Blaxland, Blue Mountains, Australia, for her study of the word "the" -- and of the many ways it causes problems for anyone who tries to put things into alphabetical order.

Brian Wansink of Cornell University, for exploring the seemingly boundless appetites of human beings, by feeding them with a self-refilling, bottomless bowl of soup. Painter and Jill North, Obesity Research, vol.

Kuo Cheng Hsieh, of Taichung, Taiwan, for patenting a device, in the year , that catches bank robbers by dropping a net over them. Hsieh, but he seemed to have vanished mysteriously. Some days after the ceremony came news that he is alive and well. Agostino , Santiago A. Plano and Diego A. Golombek of Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, Argentina, for their discovery that Viagra aids jetlag recovery in hamsters. Golombek, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. May of the University of California Los Angeles, for exploring and explaining why woodpeckers don't get headaches.

Howard Stapleton of Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, for inventing an electromechanical teenager repellant -- a device that makes annoying high-pitched noise designed to be audible to teenagers but not to adults ; and for later using that same technology to make telephone ringtones that are audible to teenagers but probably not to their teachers. Howard Stapleton planned to attend, but his plans were interrupted by a family medical situation.

Nic Svenson and Piers Barnes of the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization , for calculating the number of photographs you must take to almost ensure that nobody in a group photo will have their eyes closed. Problems with Using Long Words Needlessly. Oppenheimer, Applied Cognitive Psychology, vol.

Basile Audoly and Sebastien Neukirch of the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, in Paris, for their insights into why, when you bend dry spaghetti, it often breaks into more than two pieces. The winners delivered their acceptance speech via video recording. Knols, The Lancet, vol. De Jong, Parasitology Today, yd. De Jong and B. Richard Buckley's Exploding Trousers: John Mainstone and the late Thomas Parnell of the University of Queensland, Australia, for patiently conducting an experiment that began in the year -- in which a glob of congealed black tar has been slowly, slowly dripping through a funnel, at a rate of approximately one drop every nine years.

Parnell, European Journal of Physics, , pp. Miller of Oak Grove, Missouri, for inventing Neuticles -- artificial replacement testicles for dogs, which are available in three sizes, and three degrees of firmness. The winner was unable to travel, and delivered his acceptance speech via video. The Internet entrepreneurs of Nigeria, for creating and then using e-mail to distribute a bold series of short stories , thus introducing millions of readers to a cast of rich characters -- General Sani Abacha, Mrs.

A Reevaluation of Responses to Moving Objects. Selective Responses to Approaching Objects," F. Simmons, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. Gauri Nanda of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for inventing an alarm clock that runs away and hides, repeatedly , thus ensuring that people DO get out of bed, and thus theoretically adding many productive hours to the workday. Edward Cussler of the University of Minnesota and Brian Gettelfinger of the University of Minnesota and the University of Wisconsin, for conducting a careful experiment to settle the longstanding scientific question: Tyler, and Brian D.

Williams, Applied Herpetology, vol. Yoshiro Nakamats of Tokyo, Japan, for photographing and retrospectively analyzing every meal he has consumed during a period of 34 years and counting. Polar Biology , vol. The winners were unable to attend the ceremony because they could not obtain United States visas to visit the United States. Meyer-Rochow sent an acceptance speech via video.

Social Forces , vol. Ramesh Balasubramaniam of the University of Ottawa, and Michael Turvey of the University of Connecticut and Haskins Laboratory, for exploring and explaining the dynamics of hula-hooping.

Turvey, Biological Cybernetics , vol. Jillian Clarke of the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences , and then Howard University, for investigating the scientific validity of the Five-Second Rule about whether it's safe to eat food that's been dropped on the floor. The Coca-Cola Company of Great Britain , for using advanced technology to convert ordinary tap water into Dasani, a transparent form of water, which for precautionary reasons has been made unavailable to consumers.

Smith and his father, the late Frank J. Daniel Simons of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Christopher Chabris of Harvard University, for demonstrating that when people pay close attention to something, it's all too easy to overlook anything else -- even a woman in a gorilla suit. Simons and Christopher F. The Vatican , for outsourcing prayers to India. Daisuke Inoue of Hyogo, Japan, for inventing karaoke , thereby providing an entirely new way for people to learn to tolerate each other.

Batty and Lawrence M. Dill, Biology Letters , vol. Spark, Annals of Improbable Research, vol. Spark , on behalf of John Paul Stapp's widow, Lilly. Murphy III, on behalf of his late father. Also see their subsequent publications.

Yukio Hirose of Kanazawa University, for his chemical investigation of a bronze statue, in the city of Kanazawa , that fails to attract pigeons. John Trinkaus , of the Zicklin School of Business , New York City, for meticulously collecting data and publishing more than 80 detailed academic reports about things that annoyed him such as: What percentage of young people wear baseball caps with the peak facing to the rear rather than to the front; What percentage of pedestrians wear sport shoes that are white rather than some other color; What percentage of swimmers swim laps in the shallow end of a pool rather than the deep end; What percentage of automobile drivers almost, but not completely, come to a stop at one particular stop-sign; What percentage of commuters carry attaché cases; What percentage of shoppers exceed the number of items permitted in a supermarket's express checkout lane; and What percentage of students dislike the taste of Brussels sprouts.

Karl Schwärzler and the nation of Liechtenstein , for making it possible to rent the entire country for corporate conventions, weddings, bar mitzvahs, and other gatherings. Lal Bihari , of Uttar Pradesh, India , for a triple accomplishment: First, for leading an active life even though he has been declared legally dead ; Second, for waging a lively posthumous campaign against bureaucratic inertia and greedy relatives ; and Third, for creating the Association of Dead People.

Lal Bihari overcame the handicap of being dead, and managed to obtain a passport from the Indian government so that he could travel to Harvard to accept his Prize. Several weeks later, the Prize was presented to Lal Bihari himself in a special ceremony in India. Filmmaker Satish Kaushik will be making a film about the life and death and life of Lal Bihari. Moeliker , of Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam , the Netherlands, for documenting the first scientifically recorded case of homosexual necrophilia in the mallard duck.

Paxton , Phil Bowers, and D. Deeming, British Poultry Science , vol. Arnd Leike of the University of Munich, for demonstrating that beer froth obeys the mathematical Law of Exponential Decay.

Karl Kruszelnicki of The University of Sydney, for performing a comprehensive survey of human belly button lint -- who gets it, when, what color, and how much. Theodore Gray USA and Switzerland , for gathering many elements of the periodic table, and assembling them into the form of a four-legged periodic table table. Sreekumar and the late G. Nirmalan, Veterinary Research Communications , vol. Vicki Silvers Gier and David S. Reading Research and Instruction , vol.

Keita Sato , President of Takara Co. Norio Kogure, Executive Director, Kogure Veterinary Hospital , for promoting peace and harmony between the species by inventing Bow-Lingual , a computer-based automatic dog-to-human language translation device. Eduardo Segura, of Lavakan de Aste , in Tarragona, Spain, for inventing a washing machine for cats and dogs. The Journal of Trauma , vol. David Schmidt of the University of Massachusetts for his partial solution to the question of why shower curtains billow inwards.

Buck Weimer of Pueblo, Colorado for inventing Under-Ease , airtight underwear with a replaceable charcoal filter that removes bad-smelling gases before they escape. Joel Slemrod , of the University of Michigan Business School, and Wojciech Kopczuk , of University of British Columbia [and who has since moved to Columbia University], for their conclusion that people find a way to postpone their deaths if that would qualify them for a lower rate on the inheritance tax.

John Richards of Boston, England, founder of The Apostrophe Protection Society , for his efforts to protect, promote, and defend the differences between plural and possessive. Child Development , vol. Awarded jointly to John Keogh of Hawthorn, Victoria, Australia, for patenting the wheel in the year , and to the Australian Patent Office for granting him Innovation Patent Several years after this prize was awarded, the patent office quietly revoked Mr.

Chittaranjan Andrade and B. Srihari of the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences , Bangalore, India, for their probing medical discovery that nose picking is a common activity among adolescents. Jasmuheen formerly known as Ellen Greve of Australia , first lady of Breatharianism , for her book " Living on Light ," which explains that although some people do eat food, they don't ever really need to.

Geim, European Journal of Physics, v. Ten years later, in , Andre Geim won a Nobel Prize in physics for research on another subject. Cassano of the University of Pisa , and Hagop S. Akiskal of the University of California San Diego , for their discovery that, biochemically, romantic love may be indistinguishable from having severe obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The Reverend Sun Myung Moon , for bringing efficiency and steady growth to the mass-marriage industry , with, according to his reports , a couple wedding in , a couple wedding in , an couple wedding in , a couple wedding in , a 30,couple wedding in , a ,couple wedding in , and a 36,,couple wedding in Chris Niswander of Tucson, Arizona, for inventing PawSense , software that detects when a cat is walking across your computer keyboard.

The British Royal Navy , for ordering its sailors to stop using live cannon shells, and to instead just shout "Bang! Keller, Physics of Fluids vol. The British Standards Institution for its six-page specification BS of the proper way to make a cup of tea. The Kansas State Board of Education and the Colorado State Board of Education , for mandating that children should not believe in Darwin 's theory of evolution any more than they believe in Newton 's theory of gravitation , Faraday 's and Maxwell 's theory of electromagnetism , or Pasteur 's theory that germs cause disease.

Arvid Vatle of Stord, Norway, for carefully collecting, classifying, and contemplating which kinds of containers his patients chose when submitting urine samples.

Takeshi Makino, president of The Safety Detective Agency in Osaka, Japan, for his involvement with S-Check , an infidelity detection spray that wives can apply to their husbands' underwear. Charl Fourie and Michelle Wong of Johannesburg, South Africa, for inventing an automobile burglar alarm consisting of a detection circuit and a flamethrower.

The late George and Charlotte Blonsky of New York City and San Jose, California, for inventing a device US Patent 3,, to aid women in giving birth — the woman is strapped onto a circular table, and the table is then rotated at high speed.

Troy Hurtubise , of North Bay, Ontario, for developing, and personally testing a suit of armor that is impervious to grizzly bears.

Peter Fong of Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, for contributing to the happiness of clams by giving them Prozac. Huminski, and Lynette M. D'urso, " Journal of Experimental Zoology , vol. Jacques Benveniste of France, for his homeopathic discovery that not only does water have memory, but that the information can be transmitted over telephone lines and the Internet.

Benveniste also won the Ig Nobel Chemistry Prize. Dolores Krieger , Professor Emerita, New York University, for demonstrating the merits of therapeutic touch , a method by which nurses manipulate the energy fields of ailing patients by carefully avoiding physical contact with those patients.

Jerald Bain of Mt. Deepak Chopra of The Chopra Center for Well Being, La Jolla, California, for his unique interpretation of quantum physics as it applies to life, liberty, and the pursuit of economic happiness. Kondakor, Thomas König, and D. Mark Hostetler of the University of Florida, for his scholarly book, " That Gunk on Your Car ," which identifies the insect splats that appear on automobile windows.

Richard Hoagland of New Jersey, for identifying artificial features on the moon and on Mars, including a human face on Mars and ten-mile high buildings on the far side of the moon. Sanford Wallace , president of Cyber Promotions of Philadelphia -- neither rain nor sleet nor dark of night have stayed this self-appointed courier from delivering electronic junk mail to all the world.

Doron Witztum , Eliyahu Rips and Yoav Rosenberg of Israel, and Michael Drosnin of the United States, for their hairsplitting statistical discovery that the bible contains a secret, hidden code. Charnetski and Francis X. Harrison of Muzak Ltd. Harrison, Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol.

Akihiro Yokoi of Wiz Company in Chiba, Japan and Aki Maita of Bandai Company in Tokyo, the father and mother of Tamagotchi , for diverting millions of person-hours of work into the husbandry of virtual pets. James Johnston of R. Reynolds, Joseph Taddeo of U. Horrigan of Liggett Group, Donald S. Congress , that nicotine is not addictive. Robert Matthews of Aston University, England, for his studies of Murphy's Law , and especially for demonstrating that toast often falls on the buttered side.

Jacques Chirac , President of France, for commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima with atomic bomb tests in the Pacific. George Goble of Purdue University, for his blistering world record time for igniting a barbeque grill-three seconds, using charcoal and liquid oxygen.

Renowned Harvard Psychologist Calls ADHD A Fraud That Only Benefits The Pharmaceutical Industry