E-guides on social interaction and communicating electronically
I appreciate the notes of support that I receive from all over the world. Training and Developing Employees - Employee orientation provides new employees with the basic background Three Things to Remember: Leaders or managers of these teams are appointed by the organization and have legitimate power in the team. A number of these are discussed in the following sections, including informal participative decision-making programs, job enrichment, continuous improvement, and self-managed work teams.
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Mealtime Memos Mealtime Memo. The success of empowerment also often hinges on whether employees want to participate in decision making. Some employees, for instance, have no desire to make work-related decisions.
For example, consider employee vacation schedules. If one solution is as good as another, employee groups can be empowered to work out the scheduling. Managers do not possess sufficient information or expertise to make a quality decision without employee input. Managers should at least consult their employees before a decision is reached to prevent overlooking solutions that may appear obvious to front-line employees, but which may be more evasive for higher-level managers who are unfamiliar with front-line practices.
Again, managers should at least consult their employees before a decision is reached to determine whether employees have the information required to make an effective decision.
If employees' acceptance is crucial, participative decision-making should be used. As alluded to previously, employees tend to accept decisions more willingly if they have had a voice in the decision-making process.
One caveat is that the participation should be genuine managers should not ask for employee input simply to give the appearance of participation. Employees can usually recognize this ploy and, if they do, feelings of distrust will likely develop.
Employees' goals are aligned with those of management. If employees do not share management's goals, participative decision-making would be inappropriate, because the two parties would be at odds. Certain job characteristics help managers to build enrichment into jobs. These characteristics summarized in Exhibit 1 include Skill varietyThe various skills needed to perform a given task, where increased skill requirements are associated with increased motivation Task identityThe degree to which employees perceive how their job impacts the overall production of a product or service Task significanceWhether the task is meaningful beyond the task itself AutonomyEmployee discretion over how to perform a task FeedbackInput from peers and supervisors regarding the quality of an employee's work 15 Exhibit 1Job Characteristics That Enhance Intrinsic Motivation Skill Variety The degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities to carry out the work.
A job has high skill variety if it requires a number of different skills and talents. Task Identity The degree to which a job requires completion of the whole and identifiable piece of work. A job has high task identity, if the worker does the job from the beginning to end with a visible outcome. Task Significance The degree to which the job has a substantial impact on the lives of other people, whether these people are in the immediate organization or in the world at large.
A job has a task significance if people benefit greatly from results of the job. Autonomy The degree to which the job provides the workers with autonomy. A job has high autonomy if workers are given substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and determining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. Job Feedback The degree to which the job provides the worker with knowledge of results. A job has high job feedback if carrying out the work activities required by the job provides the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance.
This involves assigning tasks performed by different workers to a single individual. For example, in a furniture factory, rather than working on just one part of the production process, each person could assemble, sand, and stain an entire table or chair.
This change would increase skill variety, as well as task identity, as each worker would be responsible for the job from start to finish. Client relationships could be established by putting the worker in touch with customers.
For example, an auto dealership service department could allow its mechanics to discuss service problems directly with customers, rather than going through the service manager. By establishing client relationships, skill variety is increased because workers have a chance to develop interpersonal skills. It also provides them with a chance to do a larger part of the job task identity , to see how their work impacts customers task significance , and to have more decision-making authority autonomy.
Workers gain autonomy when they are given responsibility for doing things previously done by supervisors. For instance, clerks could be allowed to check for their own errors or be allowed to order supplies directly. In these situations, empowerment arises from the need to involve employees at nearly all organizational levels in continuous improvement efforts. The use of continuous improvement programs have grown rapidly, built on the successful experiences of numerous companies.
Xerox, for example, was able to decrease the number of customer complaints it received by 38 percent after implementing continuous improvement methods, and Motorola reduced the number of defects in its products by 80 percent. Proponents of self-managed work teams claim they succeed because they are customer-focused and promote sound management practices like team-work, continuous learning, and continuous improvement.
Cross-training, which allows team members to move from job to job within the team, is essential. Thus, team members should receive training in the specific skills that will broaden their personal contributions to the overall effort. Team members must communicate effectively, both one-on-one and in groups.
Cooperative decision-making within and among teams demands the skills of group problem solving, influencing others, and resolving conflicts. Team members must learn problem-solving skills that assist in zeroing in on problem areas, gathering facts, analyzing causes, generating alternatives, selecting solutions, and other related facets. Self-managed work teams must perform tasks formerly handled by supervisors.
So, I just changed this from nutrients per weight to nutrients per calories. The foods are just listed here in alphabetical order. To look for trends, we can now rank them based on these scores from best to worst.
So, this chart actually extends far off to the right, hundreds of additional bright green columns capturing all the phytonutrients found in whole plant foods, but largely missing from processed and animal derived foods. There would just be hundreds more white columns here in the middle with the few green tiles way off at the end. And, the lack of disease-preventing compounds may be compounded by the presence of disease-promoting compounds. And, the more plant-based we get, apparently, the better.
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Let me know if you think I should do more of these Nutrition videos or leave that to others and continue to focus on the shiny and new.