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The same money invested in our public hospitals would have brought secondary and tertiary care closer to poor in our government hospitals. Men and maternal and newborn health: Our year period analysis indicates that cholera affects areas outside the traditional Gangetic and Brahmaputra deltaic regions of India. Oct, 05, Quacks dominate rural healthcare, says survey- I Source: Virtually all states have a high proportion of men consuming alcohol — from a quarter to well over half — alongside a worrying decline in sex ratios. Diabet Med ; 9 5:
MCTS(Mother & Child Tracking System)
The Ministry of Health has indicated various activities in place to assure the security of the people in the country such as heightened surveillance, trained rapid response teams to support any event of EBV and other infectious diseases of public health concern, activation of high level committees to support technical and policy direction.
The sensitisation of the community to recognise and notify events of public health importance is an important entity in surveillance and public health security. The responses to the publication in social media of the latest suspected EVD case is evidence of the interest of the people in public health security. Communication among public health authorities, media and the general public is important in enhancing detection, notification and response to manage timely any public health events of concern.
Citation style for this article: Health Press Zambia Bull. Breast cancer is the second most common cancer in the world accounting to , deaths in Studies have shown that in developing nations it is diagnosed in its late stages hence contributing to high fatality rates.
Hence, this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of women attending gynecological clinic at Ndola Teaching hospital. The findings of the study will help devise sensitization programs aimed at reducing the mortality burden secondary to breast cancer. A cross sectional study design was employed. A standardized questionnaire was used on participants systematically randomly selected.
A total of The study revealed that These findings show that there is an urgent need to educate our women on breast cancer through information, communication and educational programs. Of countries in the world, breast cancer is the most diagnosed form of cancer in countries . It is the most common cancer in women in both developed and developing worlds and it was estimated that over women died in .
In the mortality rate increased to , There has been little information on the prevalence of Breast cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa and this has been attributed to lack of national cancer registry . From the available literature, a rise in the incidence of breast cancer has been observed and this has been attributed to the changes in lifestyles, especially in those of African women. In addition, African nations are typically poorer than western, industrialized nations, and this is likely to be a contributing factor to the limited availability of medical technology for cancer screening and treatment.
Socioeconomic status is also associated with a variety of lifestyles and dietary practices that will affect breast cancer risk . Studies have shown that in developing nations breast cancer is usually diagnosed in late stages compared to developed nations hence contributing to high fatality rates . Very few studies have been done to determine the knowledge of patients regarding breast cancer as most studies focus on breast self-examination.
Studies done in Zambia revealed that women had a considerable knowledge on breast cancer . No such study has been in Ndola. Hence this study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitude and practice of women attending gynecological clinic at Ndola Teaching hospital. The findings of this study will help formulate better policies that may enhance the sensitization of women for a better management and reduction mortality.
A cross sectional study was conducted at Ndola Teaching hospital in Ndola, Zambia. Ndola Teaching Hospital is the second highest referral Hospital in the country and it covers Copperbelt, Luapula, and Northwestern Provinces of Zambia.
The calculated sample size was participants. This then came to total women participants. The study targeted the women that attending the obstetrics and gynecology clinic and was done over a period of 12 weeks. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of women towards breast cancer at Ndola teaching hospital.
The questions were asked in a language that the participants were most comfortable with. The first part had demographic information about the participants including their age, level of education, Marital status etc. Section B contained questions on the knowledge, attitude and practices toward breast cancer. SPSS V20 was used for descriptive statistics. The objectives of the study were clearly explained and written consent was obtained before each interview.
Only those that consented participated in this study and confidentiality was maintained. A total number of 26 questions were used to assess the knowledge. Every correct answer was awarded a 1 whereas a wrong answer and no answer were awarded a 0. This gave a total mark of Using the blooms grading system, knowledge was divided into inadequate knowledge and adequate knowledge. There were 7 attitude indictors that were used to evaluate respondents.
Out of a sample size of , women responded, giving a response rate of Out of the participants, the majority Of these only Some of the risk factors that were identified included smoking with Some of the signs and symptoms which were identified included lump in the breast with Some of the methods used in screening and diagnosis of breast cancer which were identified included ultrasound with The recommended age to start self-breast examination was not known by majority The majority of the participants regardless of their age, education level, occupation, relationship status had a negative attitude.
The study comprised of participants of which most of the participants These results are similar to those of a study that was conducted in Solwezi rural district and Lusaka urban district of Zambia which showed that women had poor knowledge on breast cancer .
Education level was significantly associated with knowledge level. This showed that those who had reached tertiary educational level had generally good knowledge, and this finding confirms what was found in a similar study done on primary health care nurses  which suggested that there is an association between high educational levels and good knowledge. Another study done in Nigeria showed that professional jobs significantly affect the level of knowledge on breast cancer . The current study revealed a general negative attitude towards breast cancer as This finding is congruent with other studies that realized a negative attitude.
The negative attitude was attributed to the myths that women and the community at large have on breast cancer . In our study, this can be attributed to the poor knowledge that our participants portrayed. The current study also found that the majority of women had poor practice. This is in line with other studies were most women neither practice self-breast examination nor go to the health care providers for a clinical examination.
Just like in other studies, this finding in our study can be attributed to lack of knowledge as about There was no significant association between practice and the social demographic characteristics a finding which is different from a study done by Ramson et al where a significant association was found between practice and level of knowledge . The study showed that the majority of women had poor knowledge, negative attitude and poor practice irrespective of their socio-economic status.
There is an urgent need to educate our women on breast cancer through information, communication and educational programs. Latest world cancer statistics.
International Agency for Research in Cancer, Cancer in developing world: A call to action. The World Health Organization Report Mortality by sex, cause, and WHO Region, estimate for World J Surg Oncol. Breast cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa: Breast cancer and risk factors in an African population.
A case referent study. East Africa Medical Journal. Faronbi JO, Abolade J. Self-Breast Examination practices among female secondary school teachers in a rural community in Oyo State, Nigeria.
Open Journal of Nursing. The severity, outcome and challenges of breast cancer in Nigeria. Knowledge, attitude and practices towards breast cancer. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research. Breast Cancer as a global health concern. Breast cancer knowledge, attitude and practice among nurses in Lagos Nigeria.
Evaluation of breast cancer awareness among female University students in Malaysia. Pharm Pract Internet ;8: Knowledge, attitude and practice of Nigerian women towards breast cancer: International Archives of Medicine , [S.
Mukupo and Mubita N. Breast Cancer Knowledge and breast self- examination Practice among rural and urban women in Zambia. Breast cancer awareness and practice of breast self-examination among primary health care nurses: Epidemiology of breast cancer in Africa. School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Ghana. A framework for improving early detection of breast cancer in sub-Saharan Africa: Patient EducCouns ; 1: Chioma C, Asuzu S. Knowledge, attitude and practice of self-breast examination among the female students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in postmenopausal women. Lombe Mumba Ramson Knowledge attitude and practice of breast-self examination for early detectoin of breast cancer among women in roan constituency in luanshya, Copperbelt province, Zambia Asian Pac. A young female of 17 years presented with progressive growth in her left eye with loss of vision. She had previously received topical medication with no effect.
She was on anti-retroviral therapy for seven years. She had a fungating squamous cell carcinoma mass covering the entire ocular surface for which total orbital exenteration was done. It was associated with white eye discharge. The growth was of spontaneous onset, covering whole eye such that she was unable to see with her left eye. She had received treatment with topical medication at local clinic with no improvement. She had no history of ocular surgery or any other growths on the eye or the body.
Significant medical history was that she had been on Anti-retroviral therapy for the past nine years for vertically transmitted Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV. There was a positive family history of non-healing leg ulcer in her mother who had passed on some years back. She was an orphan living with her aunt.
On examination, she appeared appropriate for age and of fair nutritional status. General systemic examinations were otherwise normal. Her right eye had normal anterior and posterior segment findings. Left eye findings included restriction of extra ocular movements in all planes of gaze.
She had a huge fungating mass filling entire palpebral fissure and covering bulbar to forniceal conjunctiva. Ocular structures were not discernible. A clinical diagnosis of left eye squamous cell carcinoma was made.
The patient was admitted and counselled on the diagnosis and prognosis as well as need for orbital exenteration. Full blood count, renal function and liver function test parameters were all within normal range. She underwent left eye total orbital exenteration and tissue was sent for histopathology confirmation which confirmed the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma SCC of the left eye.
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia OSSN is a term that encompasses a spectrum of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the conjunctiva ranging from conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia CIN to frankly invasive squamous cell carcinoma SCC with destruction of the orbit and intracranial invasion 1. Classically, OSSN has been associated with light skinned elderly males living in regions with excessive sunlight ultraviolet exposure.
There is no documented evidence of occurrence of OSSN in patients younger than 20 years of age. Patients with OSSN commonly present with ocular redness and irritation, in addition to the lesion on the ocular surface which may grow within weeks to years; commonly of several months 5.
Visual acuity is only reduced if lesion grows over the cornea. Lesions commonly arise within the interpalpebral fissure, mostly at the limbus. OSSN may appear gelatinous, papilliform, leukoplakic, or nodular lesion 5.
The lesion may or may not be pigmented. If the condition is neglected, the lesion may invade the intraocular structures and spread to systemic circulation resulting in metastasis 2. It may also extend to involve the orbital structures. This was the case with the patient under discussion, hence exenteration was done. The patient was young, sexually inactive and HIV positive which she got vertically.
There was no history of trauma or eye infection prior to the onset of the eye growth. Fluorescein, Rose Bengal or Lissamine green staining have been used to help clearly delineate the borders of the lesion. Exfoliative cytology may be used to identify neoplastic cells, and ultrasound biomicroscopy to determine depth of invasion; though definitive diagnosis still remains histology 5.
Treatment of OSSN lesions includes surgical and medical options. Surgery includes excision biopsy using the no-touch technique with cryotherapy. Medical options include topical chemotherapy with 0. In cases of orbital extension of invasive SCC orbital exenteration is done with or without adjuvant radiotherapy 2. Topical antibiotics must never be used as the treatment option for conjunctival growths. This patient was initially given this treatment option which was very wrong.
This calls for sensitisation of health workers and the community so that such lesions are not taken for granted at all. She presented with an advanced OSSN lesion at 17 years old. She had a six months history of a growing lesion in her left eye which was of an aggressive nature and also a seeming delay in identifying the possibility of OSSN led to a loss of the eye in order to preserve life.
Curr Opin Oncol ;22 5: Basic and Clinical Science Course, section 4: Brit J Ophthalmol ;93 8: Cantor L, et al. Pramod Patil and Dr. Ananda Kumar won Whitley Awards for wildlife conservation: Pramod Patil and Dr Ananda Kumar have been awarded with the prestigious Whitley Awards for their contribution to wildlife conservation in developing countries. Both of them received a Whitley prize worth pound along with seven other environmentalists at a ceremony in Royal Geographical Society, London.
Lifetime Achievement Award for Prannoy Roy: Rajasthan government allocates 12 crore rupees for Project Great Indian Bustard: For this project Japan Bank is going to provide financial support of three crore rupees.
He was bestowed with this award for his outstanding contributions to science and IndoJapanese science cooperation. RIN has recognised Mr. Reddy for his work in the field of inertial and satellite-based navigation and avionics technologies.
With this he also became the first Indian to get the fellowship from Royal Institute of Navigation. Golden Medal is one of the highest civilian honours of Spain which aims to highlight an exemplary performance in any job or profession.
The development of plant will take place in three phases of MW. American boxer Floyd Mayweather Jr. He defeated Manny Pacquiao of Philippines with Judges Scores of , and in 12 rounds of intense boxing to win this title. World Press Freedom Day observed: Information and Broadcasting minister Arun Jaitley Extended his wishes on the occasion of World Press Freedom Day and told to uphold the constitutional principles of independent, free and pluralistic media.
US technology giant Microsoft on 3 May has been awarded a patent for smart glasses: The salient features of this glass would be: The wearer of the glasses can determine who to analyse, whether an individual or a group, without their knowing 3. Writer, director Philip S.
Goodman dies at Goodman, a film, television and stage writer and director, passed away at his residence. India Infrastructure Finance Company has agreed to provide long-term finance for developing port infrastructure in the public-private partnership mode, a senior government official said. The ministry aims to develop port projects worth Rs 15, crore through public-private partnership. Core sector at month low, contracts 0. The eight-sector output fell 0. Compensatory Afforestation Fund Bill cleared: Indian Army inducted the first regiment of the indigenously-developed surface-to-air Akash missile system.
World Asthma Day was observed across the world on 5 May World Asthma Day takes place on the first Tuesday of May. Sina Weibo is a Chinese microblogging website. It is similar to Twitter and Facebook. Michael Blake passed away: Oscar-winning author and screenwriter Michael Blake has passed away, He was Initially, the programme will be implemented in thirteen districts in which more than children have been identified as malnourished.
To deal with malnourishment, a special management programme will be organised on the community basis. Microsoft launches Edu-Cloud for institutions in India: President heads for Russia: President Pranab Mukherjee will land in Moscow for a visit that will be replete with symbolism. Pune ornithologist bags Green Oscar: The French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo, under armed security and a cloud of conflicted opinions and emotions, was presented a freedom of expression award from the PEN American Center.
Two billion people do not have bank accounts: IMF chief Christine Lagarde: Nearly two billion people globally do not have bank accounts including those in the US.
India loses ground on global motherhood index: India slips to 10th spot in global m-cap ranking: The total worth of all listed Indian companies is less than the total market capitalisation of Switzerland-listed ones. It was the reverse story at the end of the , when India was at the number nine spot in global rankings.
India has now dropped to number India, Iran sign pact on developing Chabahar port: Notwithstanding US objections, India went ahead with the signing of an agreement with Iran for the development of the strategically important Chabahar port which will give India sea-land access route to Afghanistan bypassing Pakistan. The pact was signed after comprehensive talks between visiting Road Transport and Highways Minister Nitin Gadkari with the Iranian leadership.
Card is issued free of cost to customers maintaining a quaterly balance of 50, rupees. Geeta wins Asian wrestling bronze: World food prices fall to nearly 5-year low in April: Global food prices fell in April to their lowest since June , as dairy led most commodities down, the United Nations food agency.
The Union Government and Asian Development Bank ADB signed a 31 million US dollars loan agreement to boost water availability in selected river basins in Karnataka and ensure improved water efficiency in irrigation.
The program will improve irrigation efficiency in three river basins in the state saving million cubic meters of water. The United Nations health agency on 9 May declared Liberia Ebola-free, hailing the monumental achievement in the west African country where the virus has killed more than 4, people.
World Red Cross Day celebrated: Purushottam is currently serving as Ambassador to Venezuela. She is expected to take up her new assignment soon. North Korea successfully conducted underwater test-fire of a newly developed Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile. A record number of 10 Indian-origin Members of Parliament MPs were elected in recently concluded general election that elected 56th Parliament of the UK. Achal Kumar Jyoti appointed as Election Commissioner: Achal Kumar Jyoti, a former Chief Secretary during the tenure of Narendra Modi as Gujarat Chief Minister, was appointed as the Election Commissioner, filling one of the two vacancies in the three-member body.
The aim of this new naval base at Porbandar is to beef up security along the km coastline of the state. Gujarat has a coastline of km interspersed with 43 ports. It will also increase the maritime security on western coast and strengthen surveillance and security in the region.
BrahMos land-attack cruise missile successfully test-fired from Car Nicobar Islands: Land-to-land configuration of BrahMos missile was successfully test-fired from the Nicobar Islands.
She was elected as MP to House of Commons i. President Pranab Mukherjee has appointed Mr. The tenure of Mr. Saxena will commence from the date he enters upon the office till he attains age of 65 years. PM Narendra Modi launches three social security schemes- 1 on pension, 2 on insurance: PM Narendra Modi launches three social security schemes- 1 on pension, 2 on insurance.
The Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana will offer a renewable one-year life cover of Rs 2 lakh to all savings bank account holders in the age group of years, covering death due to any reason, for a premium of Rs per annum.
Atal Pension Yojana will focus on the unorganised sector and provide subscribers a fixed minimum pension of Rs 1,, Rs 2,, Rs 3,, Rs 4, or Rs 5, per month, starting at the age of 60 years, depending on the contribution option exercised on entering at an age between 18 and 40 years. Haryana Government includes Deaflympics in its sports policy: Haryana Government has decided to include Deaflympics in its Sports Policy in order to boost the morale of differently-abled sportspersons in the state.
Rosberg wins Spanish GP ahead of teammate Hamilton: Nico Rosberg has finally got the better of Mercedes teammate Lewis Hamilton this season, winning the Spanish Grand Prix from pole position to gain ground on the championship leader.
Yuki Bhambri wins doubles title: However, the overall list is dominated by the companies from the US and China. Prime Minister Narendra Modi became the first prime minister in last 30 years to visit Naxal hotbed of Dantewada Chhattisgarh: Welfare projects worth about Rs. Conservative Party have secured seats from a total of seats. Coin was launched to mark the birth centenary of Swami Chinmayananda. Achal Kumar Jyoti is appointed as the new Election commissioner.
Shashi Kapoor is 46th Film personality to receive this award. It is celebrated to showcase Indian Culture in Russia. India has successfully test fired advanced version of Brahmos Supersonic Cruise Missile.
Test-fired was conducted at Nicobar Islands in Andaman and Nicobar. Brahmos-III has a range of km and can carry weight upto kg. National Technology day was observed across the country on 11th May. India has named private banker K. Kamath as the first head of the new development bank the BRICS group of emerging market economies is setting up.
NITI Aayog likely to junk expenditure criterion for estimating poor: How many poor people does India have? Biocon founder and managing director Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw has been ranked one of the most influential executives in the world in the field of medicine by a top UK-based medical publication. It seeks to provide potable water to bus passengers at reasonable price.
Union Government has constituted Committee headed by Justice A. New Governor appointed in 4 sates: Two governors appointed during the tenure of the UPA government were shifted to Mizoram and Manipur satate. Punjab becomes first state to issue Soil Health Cards to farmers: Punjab has become the first state to issue Soil Health Cards to all farmers in the state. The state has got 66 such laboratories which can test 3. The government has approved Rs. It was way back in that this award was first given that has cash prize of 10, pounds.
The owner and president of software firm Celframe, heads the list with wealth of 4 billion dollars. India way behind on WHO health targets: India has met only four of ten health targets under the Millenium Development Goals MDG , and has made next to no progress on another four, according to new data from the World Health Organisation.
The deadline for achieving MDGs runs out this year. The country had registered a record foodgrain production of India th on global human capital index; Finland tops: India ranked at a low th position on a global Human Capital Index, which measures the countries in terms of the economies leveraging their human capital, where Finland has topped the nation list.
Banks have enrolled This disinvestment will fetch government over crore rupees. Harbhajan Kaur Dheer is a 62 year old councilor of the Labour Party. India to grow at 8. Indian economy is likely to clock 8. Indian-American wins National Geographic Bee championship: Karan Menon, a year-old Indian-American student, has won the prestigious National Geographic Bee competition in the US, in which the top three positions were bagged by Indian-origin contestants.
India to assume presidency of World Health Assembly in Geneva after 18 years: Infosys to open first overseas campus in China: Vice President Hamid Ansari confers Pt.
Haridutt Sharma Award to Anurradha Prasad: She was bestowed with this award for her contribution in the field of Journalism, Writing and Social Services. Joseph Appointed as Controller General of Accounts: With this win he qualified for the Rio Olympics by earning himself a quota place.