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Weta Digital Viki Yeo Therefore, you and my father Guido now deceased would be first cousins. I am going to Italy hopefully next summer, my grandmother 4 brothers and 1 sister. Weta Digital Owen Cartagena Lansberry to Colleen M. University of California Press, A Comparative Account in Vertebrates.

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Weta Digital Danielle Millington-Peck Weta Digital Jonas Mogilevec Weta Digital Rosanna Morley Weta Digital Rudresh Naik Previs Production Manager Shaan Nelson Weta Digital Michael Nilsson Weta Digital Chuang Niu Weta Digital Sabari Nobishwaran Weta Digital Charlie North VFX animation production assistant Abdelkader Nouar Digital Domain Paul O'Hara Weta Digital Pavel Ocovaj A Review of the Literature.

Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. The cause of leg cramps and knee pains: Past 5, years prolific for changes to human genome. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. Craniofacial feminization, social tolerance, and the origins of behavioral modernity. Loss of ACTN3 gene function alters mouse muscle metabolism and shows evidence of positive selection in humans.

Evolution of the human lifespan and diseases of aging: Roles of infection, inflammation, and nutrition.

Ancient urbanization predicts genetic resistance to tuberculosis. A twelve-year retrospective on its nature and implications. Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America. University of California Press, Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: Implications for primate evolution. Archaeological and Ethnoarchaeological Perspectives. Left Coast Press, How to Become a 21st-Century Hunter-Gatherer. Revisiting the Demographic and Epidemiologic Transitions.

Life—history theory, fertility and reproductive success in humans. Peter Ungar, Mark Teaford: Its Origin and Evolution. Greenwood Publishing Group, , s. Alternate-day fasting and chronic disease prevention: Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: Subsistence strategies in traditional societies distinguish gut microbiomes. Hunter-gatherer diets—a different perspective. The ancestral dinner table. The diet of Australopithecus sediba.

Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer: Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: Gene-culture coevolution between cattle milk protein genes and human lactase genes.

Macronutrient estimations in hunter-gatherer diets. Hunter-gatherer diets—a shore-based perspective. How Cooking Made Us Human. A possible case of hypervitaminosis A in Homo erectus. Red meat consumption and mortality: Evolution of the Human Diet: The composition of Euryapsida was uncertain. Ichthyosaurs were, at times, considered to have arisen independently of the other euryapsids, and given the older name Parapsida. Parapsida was later discarded as a group for the most part ichthyosaurs being classified as incertae sedis or with Euryapsida.

However, four or three if Euryapsida is merged into Diapsida subclasses remained more or less universal for non-specialist work throughout the 20th century. It has largely been abandoned by recent researchers: By the early 21st century, vertebrate paleontologists were beginning to adopt phylogenetic taxonomy, in which all groups are defined in such a way as to be monophyletic ; that is, groups include all descendants of a particular ancestor. The reptiles as historically defined are paraphyletic , since they exclude both birds and mammals.

These respectively evolved from dinosaurs and from early therapsids, which were both traditionally called reptiles. Mammals are a clade , and therefore the cladists are happy to acknowledge the traditional taxon Mammalia ; and birds, too, are a clade, universally ascribed to the formal taxon Aves. Mammalia and Aves are, in fact, subclades within the grand clade of the Amniota.

But the traditional class Reptilia is not a clade. It is just a section of the clade Amniota: It cannot be defined by synapomorphies , as is the proper way. Instead, it is defined by a combination of the features it has and the features it lacks: At best, the cladists suggest, we could say that the traditional Reptilia are 'non-avian, non-mammalian amniotes'.

Despite the early proposals for replacing the paraphyletic Reptilia with a monophyletic Sauropsida , which includes birds, that term was never adopted widely or, when it was, was not applied consistently.

In , Jacques Gauthier proposed a cladistic definition of Reptilia as a monophyletic node-based crown group containing turtles, lizards and snakes, crocodilians, and birds, their common ancestor and all its descendants. Because the actual relationship of turtles to other reptiles was not yet well understood at this time, Gauthier's definition came to be considered inadequate. A variety of other definitions were proposed by other scientists in the years following Gauthier's paper.

The first such new definition, which attempted to adhere to the standards of the PhyloCode , was published by Modesto and Anderson in Modesto and Anderson reviewed the many previous definitions and proposed a modified definition, which they intended to retain most traditional content of the group while keeping it stable and monophyletic.

They defined Reptilia as all amniotes closer to Lacerta agilis and Crocodylus niloticus than to Homo sapiens. This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized with Reptilia, since the latter is better known and more frequently used. Unlike most previous definitions of Reptilia, however, Modesto and Anderson's definition includes birds, [1] as they are within the clade that includes both lizards and crocodiles.

Classification to order level of the reptiles, after Benton, The cladogram presented here illustrates the "family tree" of reptiles, and follows a simplified version of the relationships found by M. Synapsida mammals and their extinct relatives. Rhynchocephalia tuatara and their extinct relatives. Squamata lizards and snakes. Archosauriformes crocodiles , birds , dinosaurs and extinct relatives.

The placement of turtles has historically been highly variable. Classically, turtles were considered to be related to the primitive anapsid reptiles.

So far three turtle genomes have been sequenced. The origin of the reptiles lies about — million years ago, in the steaming swamps of the late Carboniferous period, when the first reptiles evolved from advanced reptiliomorphs. The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria though it may have been a temnospondyl.

The earliest amniotes, including stem-reptiles those amniotes closer to modern reptiles than to mammals , were largely overshadowed by larger stem-tetrapods, such as Cochleosaurus , and remained a small, inconspicuous part of the fauna until the Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse. Primitive tetrapods were particularly devastated, while stem-reptiles fared better, being ecologically adapted to the drier conditions that followed.

Amniotes acquired new niches at a faster rate than before the collapse and at a much faster rate than primitive tetrapods. They acquired new feeding strategies including herbivory and carnivory, previously only having been insectivores and piscivores.

It was traditionally assumed that the first reptiles retained an anapsid skull inherited from their ancestors. These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals. Turtles have been traditionally believed to be surviving parareptiles, on the basis of their anapsid skull structure, which was assumed to be primitive trait.

With the close of the Carboniferous , the amniotes became the dominant tetrapod fauna. While primitive, terrestrial reptiliomorphs still existed, the synapsid amniotes evolved the first truly terrestrial megafauna giant animals in the form of pelycosaurs , such as Edaphosaurus and the carnivorous Dimetrodon.

In the mid-Permian period, the climate became drier, resulting in a change of fauna: The pelycosaurs were replaced by the therapsids. The parareptiles, whose massive skull roofs had no postorbital holes, continued and flourished throughout the Permian. The pareiasaurian parareptiles reached giant proportions in the late Permian, eventually disappearing at the close of the period the turtles being possible survivors.

Early in the period, the modern reptiles, or crown-group reptiles , evolved and split into two main lineages: Both groups remained lizard-like and relatively small and inconspicuous during the Permian. The close of the Permian saw the greatest mass extinction known see the Permian—Triassic extinction event , an event prolonged by the combination of two or more distinct extinction pulses. These were characterized by elongated hind legs and an erect pose, the early forms looking somewhat like long-legged crocodiles.

The archosaurs became the dominant group during the Triassic period, though it took 30 million years before their diversity was as great as the animals that lived in the Permian. Since reptiles, first rauisuchians and then dinosaurs, dominated the Mesozoic era, the interval is popularly known as the "Age of Reptiles". The dinosaurs also developed smaller forms, including the feather-bearing smaller theropods.

In the Cretaceous period, these gave rise to the first true birds. The sister group to Archosauromorpha is Lepidosauromorpha , containing lizards and tuataras , as well as their fossil relatives. Lepidosauromorpha contained at least one major group of the Mesozoic sea reptiles: The phylogenetic placement of other main groups of fossil sea reptiles — the ichthyopterygians including ichthyosaurs and the sauropterygians , which evolved in the early Triassic — is more controversial.

Different authors linked these groups either to lepidosauromorphs [54] or to archosauromorphs, [55] [56] [57] and ichthyopterygians were also argued to be diapsids that did not belong to the least inclusive clade containing lepidosauromorphs and archosauromorphs.

The close of the Cretaceous period saw the demise of the Mesozoic era reptilian megafauna see the Cretaceous—Paleogene extinction event. Of the large marine reptiles, only sea turtles were left; and of the non-marine large reptiles, only the semi-aquatic crocodiles and broadly similar choristoderes survived the extinction, with the latter becoming extinct in the Miocene.

This dramatic extinction pattern at the end of the Mesozoic led into the Cenozoic. Mammals and birds filled the empty niches left behind by the reptilian megafauna and, while reptile diversification slowed, bird and mammal diversification took an exponential turn. After the extinction of most archosaur and marine reptile lines by the end of the Cretaceous, reptile diversification continued throughout the Cenozoic. All squamates and turtles have a three-chambered heart consisting of two atria , one variably partitioned ventricle , and two aortas that lead to the systemic circulation.

The degree of mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood in the three-chambered heart varies depending on the species and physiological state. Under different conditions, deoxygenated blood can be shunted back to the body or oxygenated blood can be shunted back to the lungs. This variation in blood flow has been hypothesized to allow more effective thermoregulation and longer diving times for aquatic species, but has not been shown to be a fitness advantage. Some squamate species e.

This is made possible by a muscular ridge that subdivides the ventricle during ventricular diastole and completely divides it during ventricular systole. Because of this ridge, some of these squamates are capable of producing ventricular pressure differentials that are equivalent to those seen in mammalian and avian hearts.

Crocodilians have an anatomically four-chambered heart, similar to birds , but also have two systemic aortas and are therefore capable of bypassing their pulmonary circulation. Modern non-avian reptiles exhibit some form of cold-bloodedness i. Due to a less stable core temperature than birds and mammals , reptilian biochemistry requires enzymes capable of maintaining efficiency over a greater range of temperatures than in the case for warm-blooded animals.

As in all animals, reptilian muscle action produces heat. In large reptiles, like leatherback turtles , the low surface-to-volume ratio allows this metabolically produced heat to keep the animals warmer than their environment even though they do not have a warm-blooded metabolism.

The benefit of a low resting metabolism is that it requires far less fuel to sustain bodily functions. By using temperature variations in their surroundings, or by remaining cold when they do not need to move, reptiles can save considerable amounts of energy compared to endothermic animals of the same size. It is generally assumed that reptiles are unable to produce the sustained high energy output necessary for long distance chases or flying.

Energetic studies on some reptiles have shown active capacities equal to or greater than similar sized warm-blooded animals. All reptiles breathe using lungs. Aquatic turtles have developed more permeable skin, and some species have modified their cloaca to increase the area for gas exchange. Lung ventilation is accomplished differently in each main reptile group. In squamates , the lungs are ventilated almost exclusively by the axial musculature. This is also the same musculature that is used during locomotion.

Because of this constraint, most squamates are forced to hold their breath during intense runs. Some, however, have found a way around it. Varanids, and a few other lizard species, employ buccal pumping as a complement to their normal "axial breathing". This allows the animals to completely fill their lungs during intense locomotion, and thus remain aerobically active for a long time.

Tegu lizards are known to possess a proto- diaphragm , which separates the pulmonary cavity from the visceral cavity. While not actually capable of movement, it does allow for greater lung inflation, by taking the weight of the viscera off the lungs.

Crocodilians actually have a muscular diaphragm that is analogous to the mammalian diaphragm. The difference is that the muscles for the crocodilian diaphragm pull the pubis part of the pelvis, which is movable in crocodilians back, which brings the liver down, thus freeing space for the lungs to expand. This type of diaphragmatic setup has been referred to as the " hepatic piston ". The airways form a number of double tubular chambers within each lung.

On inhalation and exhalation air moves through the airways in the same direction, thus creating a unidirectional airflow through the lungs. A similar system is found in birds, [85] monitor lizards [86] and iguanas. Most reptiles lack a secondary palate , meaning that they must hold their breath while swallowing. Crocodilians have evolved a bony secondary palate that allows them to continue breathing while remaining submerged and protect their brains against damage by struggling prey.

Skinks family Scincidae also have evolved a bony secondary palate, to varying degrees. Snakes took a different approach and extended their trachea instead. Their tracheal extension sticks out like a fleshy straw, and allows these animals to swallow large prey without suffering from asphyxiation. How turtles and tortoises breathe has been the subject of much study. To date, only a few species have been studied thoroughly enough to get an idea of how those turtles breathe.

The varied results indicate that turtles and tortoises have found a variety of solutions to this problem. The difficulty is that most turtle shells are rigid and do not allow for the type of expansion and contraction that other amniotes use to ventilate their lungs. Some turtles, such as the Indian flapshell Lissemys punctata , have a sheet of muscle that envelops the lungs. When it contracts, the turtle can exhale.

When at rest, the turtle can retract the limbs into the body cavity and force air out of the lungs. When the turtle protracts its limbs, the pressure inside the lungs is reduced, and the turtle can suck air in.

Turtle lungs are attached to the inside of the top of the shell carapace , with the bottom of the lungs attached via connective tissue to the rest of the viscera. By using a series of special muscles roughly equivalent to a diaphragm , turtles are capable of pushing their viscera up and down, resulting in effective respiration, since many of these muscles have attachment points in conjunction with their forelimbs indeed, many of the muscles expand into the limb pockets during contraction.

Breathing during locomotion has been studied in three species, and they show different patterns. Adult female green sea turtles do not breathe as they crutch along their nesting beaches.

They hold their breath during terrestrial locomotion and breathe in bouts as they rest. North American box turtles breathe continuously during locomotion, and the ventilation cycle is not coordinated with the limb movements.

The last species to have been studied is the red-eared slider, which also breathes during locomotion, but takes smaller breaths during locomotion than during small pauses between locomotor bouts, indicating that there may be mechanical interference between the limb movements and the breathing apparatus. Box turtles have also been observed to breathe while completely sealed up inside their shells. Reptilian skin is covered in a horny epidermis , making it watertight and enabling reptiles to live on dry land, in contrast to amphibians.

Compared to mammalian skin, that of reptiles is rather thin and lacks the thick dermal layer that produces leather in mammals. In lepidosaurians , such as lizards and snakes, the whole skin is covered in overlapping epidermal scales. Such scales were once thought to be typical of the class Reptilia as a whole, but are now known to occur only in lepidosaurians.

Lacking a thick dermis, reptilian leather is not as strong as mammalian leather. It is used in leather-wares for decorative purposes for shoes, belts and handbags, particularly crocodile skin. Reptiles shed their skin through a process called ecdysis which occurs continuously throughout their lifetime.

In particular, younger reptiles tend to shed once every 5—6 weeks while adults shed times a year. Once full size, the frequency of shedding drastically decreases. The process of ecdysis involves forming a new layer of skin under the old one. Proteolytic enzymes and lymphatic fluid is secreted between the old and new layers of skin. Consequently, this lifts the old skin from the new one allowing shedding to occur. Traumatic injuries on the other hand, form scars that will not allow new scales to form and disrupt the process of ecdysis.

Excretion is performed mainly by two small kidneys. In diapsids, uric acid is the main nitrogenous waste product; turtles, like mammals , excrete mainly urea. Unlike the kidneys of mammals and birds, reptile kidneys are unable to produce liquid urine more concentrated than their body fluid.

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